Federalism in Action and How Does It Impact Me -Political Science Sample



Assignment #1: Federalism in Action


*1st Document: Informational Pamphlet

Word Count: 750 7-8 references with intext

*2nd Document: Federal – State Relations Infographic

Word Count: 750 7-8 references with intext


Assignment #2: But, How Does it Impact Me?


*1st Document: Completed State and Local Policy Scenarios Document. Template with all the questions is attached to this email.

Word Count: 1200 10-12 references with intext


Assignment #3: Red, Blue and Purple States


*Research Report

Word Count: 2000 15-20 references with intext





Part 1

Roles of governors

Governors play important and broad roles in state legislatures in order to coordinate as well as work with legislatures of the state. Main roles of governor are such as

  • Approving state appropriations as well as state budgets

Governors need to develop as well as submit biennial or annual budgets for reviewing and they need to monitor the process of approval of budgets by the legislature (Governor’s power and authority, 2019).

  • State legislature enactment

Governors need to prepare some specific legislative proposals on behalf of them and also they need to testify those proposals.

  • Confirmation of judicial and executive appointments

Some judicial and executive appointments require legislative confirmations so the governor needs to confirm those appointments.

  • Legislative oversight of different executive functions of brunches

Role of city council

  • Main roles of a city council are

  • Approving and reviewing annual budget

  • Establishing long and short term objectives as well as priorities

  • Oversee the effectiveness of different programs as well as overall performance of local public (City Councils Other Names, 2019)

  • Establishment of tax rates and borrowing funds

  • Passing ordinance and resolutions

  • regulation of land use with the help of zonal laws

  • Regulation of different business activities with the help of licensing and regulations

  • Regulation of public health as well as safety.

  • Communicate different programs and policies to the residents.

  • Giving response to constituent needs as well as complaints.

  • Represent the community to different levels of government.

Governors need to interact with their legislatures in order to help to ensure their priorities, accomplishments as well as goals.

Role of townships

Main responsibility of township is oversight road maintenance, trash collection and land use planning. Townships are more efficient than larger governments (City Councils Other Names, 2019). Township officers discuss about different issues of the town in order to provide proper solutions to mitigate such issues.

Role of Special Districts

Special districts are kind of local government which provides different high quality service as well as resources in effective and efficient manner. Special districts provide specific services to different persons living into the designated geographic area in order to provide services to the local peoples as well as outside the area (City Councils Other Names, 2019). There are diffeulkt forms of special districts like water and wastewater, environmental and health and safety. These forms of special districts provide services to the peoples regarding respective fields.

Difference between unicameral and bicameral legislatures

Unicameral legislature is the kind of legislative system which has only one house or one assembly. On the contrary, bicameral legislature refers to the kind of legislature which is like a form of government where authority and powers are being shared between two different chambers.

Role of state supreme court

Supreme Court is the main and highest court which has the power to check the actions of congress and president. They make the decisions in order to provide justice to the constituents.


Role of mayor

  • Main roles of mayor are

  • Serving the city council

  • Giving votes in council meetings

  • Appointing peoples of the local area to serve on commissions or advisory boards (Mayoral Powers, 2019).

  • Preparation of annual budget as well as making annual report to the council.

Difference between weak and strong mayors

Strong mayor is chief executive officer who directs the overall administrative structures by appointing as well as removing departmental heads (Mayoral Powers, 2019). On the contrary, weak mayor is not the chief executive officer truly as they don’t have the power to direct administrative structures. Another important difference between strong and weak mayor is strong mayor has the veto power but weak mayor has no veto power.

Roles of state legislatures

State legislature comprised of senators and state representatives.

Role of senators

Senator has many roles to perform including writing as well as passing laws, ratifying different treaties with different countries, and approving presidential appointments (Local US Governments, 2019). Senators can initiate different spending bills as well as they have the executive authority in order to impeach officials as well as they have the power to choose the President in Electoral College. They share responsibilities for lawmaking into the state. They share responsibilities with the House of Representatives for this purpose. Main role of state representative of USA is to introduce bills and conduct vote on bills which represents the interests of constituents of that country. State representatives serve in state level legislative branch and help to form state laws which give benefit to all the constituents. State representatives create different new laws and they also update or modify old laws. State representatives uphold states constitution and conduct vote in order to bring some specific required changes to the constituents (State and local government, 2019). State representatives also assist constituents with legal issues like justice problems and immigration.



Local US Governments, (2019). nlc.org . Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : https://www.nlc.org/local-us-governments

State and local government, (2019). whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/state-local-government/

Governor’s power and authority, (2019).web.archive.org .Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : http://web.archive.org/web/20151128110104/http://www.nga.org/cms/home/management-resources/governors-powers-and-authority.html

Mayoral Powers, (2019). Nlc.org. Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : https://www.nlc.org/mayoral-powers

City Councils Other Names, (2019). nlc.org. Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from :https://www.nlc.org/city-councils


Part 2

Purpose of federalism

  • Federalism is the most important aspect regarding sharing of power.

  • It is an innovative concept.

  • It focuses on sharing of power between different state and national governments.

  • Federalism allows power transmission to the federal government.

  • It provides general welfare to the constituents.

  • Federalism allows strengthening the overall performance of the country ((RESERVED POWERS, 2019).

  • In US the federalism introduced because different states evolved from separate colonies.

Diverse population became a major point of concern and in order to provide a proper structure to the country federalism emerged.

Corruption in federalism in UK

Federal state relations

Differences between the roles and powers of federal, state and local governments

  • Federalism refers to the division of power between state government and federal government. Both federal as well as state government have own courts in order to perform justice.

  • In case of federal court system article III of the constitution provides information about judicial powers of the US government.

  • In this system article III helps to create US Supreme court as well as it gives power to the congress to create some lower courts (RESERVED POWERS, 2019).

  • On the contrary, state government laws and the constitution establishes by various state courts.

  • Some of the states also have intermediate court of appeals.

  • In case of federal government magistrate judges handles different district court matters.

Power division in UK


There are some types of courts like Court of international trade. U.S. Bankruptcy courts as well as District courts but in case of state government, states only have probate court, family court and juvenile court (Crashcourse, 2:03).

  • In federal government federal court has federal judges in order to make justice nominated by the president as well as confirmed by senate.

  • State government has judges who are elected by election, appointment for life and appointment for a given number of years.

  • There are some exclusive federal powers like coining money, regulating the mails, regulating foreign commerce.

  • It also influences interstate commerce, declaring wars, conducting foreign affairs, raising armies and establishing rules of naturalization.

At the same time there are different exclusive state powers. This includes establishing local governments, conducting elections, providing public safety, welfare and health, maintenance of militia, regulating interstate commerce and ratifying amendments (Local US Governments, 2019).

Relationship between federal and state and local government

  • Balance of power between federal government and state government has been changed.

  • States regulated within the borders of the state.

  • Federal government regulated international and national issues.

  • In crisis time federal government emerged to provide aid in some areas at the state level in order to help state government (3c. Federal-State Relations Today: Back to States’ Rights?, 2019).

  • Federal government used to influence the state with the help of distribution.

  • This focuses on incentives, grants, and different other aids.

  • Local as well as state governments like to obtain federal dollars.

  • Categorical grants from federal government only can be used for some specific purposes

  • They sometimes include nondiscrimination provisions in order to protect constituents from discriminations especially against minorities, women and other groups (Crashcourse, 2:33).

  • Federal grants like block grants given to localities or states for different board purpose.


The Constitutional definition of the separation of powers between federal, state and local governments

  • In the tenth amendment of the constitution of USA separation of powers between states, federal and local governments have been discussed.

  • As per this amendment, powers given to the congress over other interstate commerce exercised for the purpose of acknowledgement of limitations and mitigation of different issues.

  • State, local as well as federal government has different kind of powers (3c. Federal-State Relations Today: Back to States’ Rights?, 2019).

  • After tenth amendment states transferred the authority to the federal government for the purpose of identify supremacy of the country.

After this amendment constitutional doctrine restricts congressional authority in order to subject different state activities as well as instrumentalities in order to enacted commerce power (Governor’s power and authority, 2019).

  • Tenth amendment directly interdicted different federal powers.

  • It gives authority to the federal government in order to invite unelected federal judiciary for making decisions about different state policies.

  • Thus, it helps the federal government to identify issues regarding fair labor standards of the country.

  • This amendment makes sure whether the state sovereignty is protected or not.

After this amendment state government have some limitations like they can’t regulate mails and foreign commerce. Local and state government has no authority to provide judgments on some specific cases.


  • [Crashcourse]. (2015, February, 14). Federalism: Crash Course Government and Politics #4 [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Osui4inQgFE

  • [Crashcourse]. (2015, February, 14). Federalism: Crash Course Government and Politics #4 [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0gosGXSgsI

  • 3c. Federal-State Relations Today: Back to States’ Rights?, (2019). Ushistory.org. Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from :http://www.ushistory.org/gov/3c.asp
  • American Government and Politics in the Information Age, (2019).Saylordotorg.github.io. Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019. Retrieved from:https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_american-government-and-politics-in-the-information-age/
  • Governor’s power and authority, (2019).web.archive.org .Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : http://web.archive.org/web/20151128110104/http://www.nga.org/cms/home/management-resources/governors-powers-and-authority.html

  • Local US Governments, (2019). nlc.org . Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : https://www.nlc.org/local-us-governments

  • RESERVED POWERS, (2019). law.cornell.edu.Retrieved on : 20th March, 2019 retrieved from : https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution-conan/amendment-10/reserved-powers#amdt10_hd4




Explore State and Local Government, But, How Does It Impact Me?

State and Local Policy Scenarios

As you read through each of the following scenarios, consider how each proposed policy affects citizens in these cities and states. Public policy decisions on all levels of government

federal, state and localcan be complex and multifaceted. Sometimes, a decision that benefits some citizens negatively impacts others. Additionally, it is not always simple to determine whether an issue should be handled by federal, state or local government. In federalism, some of these powers intersect and overlap. When classifying whether each of the following scenarios is a state or local issue, consider whether each is purely a “state issue,” a “local issue,” or if the issue might concern both levels of government.


1. The town of Smalburg, Missouri, population 8,500, borders the much larger city of Mid City, Missouri, which has a population of 150,000 residents. Since Smalburg is so small in size and population, the town has no public school system of its own. For years, school-aged Smalburg residents have been allowed to attend Mid City’s public schools. However, Smalburg’s population has grown in recent years, stretching Mid City’s schools to their capacity and beyond. In some cases, students are being forced to sit in cafeterias for classes and budgets for Mid City schools have been spread razor-thin, with almost no potential for hiring new teachers or buying new classroom equipment.

To prevent further burdening Mid City’s school system, the Smalburg township government has decided (after much debate) to build and open a public school system in Smalburg. Of course, this new school system will need heavy fundingto cover the costs of hiring teachers, buying equipment and supplies, and building a new, state-of-the-art K-12 school building to include all Smalburg students. To make this plan a reality, the township government has agreed to implement a new Education Tax, effective in the coming year. Some citizens have praised the decision, particularly Mid City residents, but others are less than pleased. Some Smalburg citizens without children or whose children have finished school feel they are paying for something that does not directly benefit them.

1. Is this primarily a state or local policy issue? Explain your answer.

The town of Smalburg in Missouri is a small town which is lacking public school system. The State looks after the education of the people of the state. The lack of the public school in the city shows the failure in implementation of the state policy(state.gov,2019).  Due to the failure of the state policy the schools in the Mid city has to expand their capacity in order to accommodate the students from the city of the Smalburg.

2. Who stands to benefit from this policy? How?

The state is planning to implement the new education tax from the coming year to establish the new school in the Smalbury city. The students of the Smalburg city will be benefited by a wider range. It will enjoy the facility of the school and they will not have to travel to the Mid city in order to acquire education. It will also help them to attend proper class instead of attending class in the cafeterias of the Mid city school.

3. Who stands to be negatively impacted? How?

The education tax was being implemented on the citizens of the state which would benefit the students of the city of Smalburg. All the taxpayers are not thrilled about the new tax implementation as some of them could not directly benefit from the new change. They are unsatisfied as some of them do not have children and those who are having children; they have already passed out from their schools.

4. Does the policy seem reasonable? Why or why not?

Although the new education policy implemented by the state will benefit the students of a small town but it will benefit the state in a wider range. As investing in youth for their education is essential as it will enhance the demographic dividend of the state. This in turn will also impact the future workforce of the state (State.gov, 2019).

5. What might be the impacts of this policy change on citizens specifically?

The implementation of the new policy of education tax will benefit the students as there will infrastructural development in the town. The state invests in the youth as they are the demographic dividend of the country and affect the future workforce of the country in positive way. The increased workforce of the state also affects the country’s Gross domestic product in a positive way although in a smaller percentage (Stlouisfed.org, 2019).

2. Frost City, Minnesota just went through the worst, snowiest winter in its history. Snowfall reached record highs and road conditions reached all time lows. There were often not enough plows or plow drivers to keep up with the inclement weather. Schools were forced to cancel more than two weeks of classes, and many workers missed work as a result. To combat this issue for future winters, Mayor Jonathan Snow has proposed some rearranging of the municipal budget that would allow for the commissioning of 20 additional city plows and 30 more plow drivers to clear city streets during and in the aftermath of snowstorms. In addition, some of the raised funds will be allocated to hiring contractors to handle additional plowing needs during snow emergencies.

In light of Frost City’s limited municipal budget, however, this funding will not come without a substantial cost. As a result of rearranging the budget, much needed renovations to the city’s public playgrounds will not be made for another year. The playgrounds are popular spots for families to bring their children, particularly for low-income families. In recent years, the playground equipment has grown old, rusty, and in some cases dangerously broken. Some debate has arisen among citizens about whether it is more appropriate to invest taxpayer money in plows that will sit idle for most of the year, or to simply hire additional contractors when snow emergencies arise.

1. Is this primarily a state or local policy issue? Explain your answer.

The Frost city, Minnesota experienced worst snowfall where it crossed all its previous records. The issue of clearance of excessive snow cover in the locality is a local issue. Failure to address the issue on time leads to the local policy failure, the Mayor is responsible to implement allocate the budget for the snow clearance during winter season. The budget allocated will also include hiring contractors during snow emergencies.

2. Who stands to benefit from this policy? How?

The Mayor have decided to reallocate the municipal budget in order to arrange for the extra workforce that is required to commission additional plowing tools in order to stabilize the emergency situation in the city. All the students of the city will be benefitted as the schools were forced to shut down due to the excessive snow cover. All the citizens of the city to a larger extent will be benefited with this reallocation of the budget.

3. Who stands to be negatively impacted? How?

The budget reallocation for snow clearance in the city will affect the children from low income group. The budget reallocation for snow clearance is taken from the budget allocated to the renovation the city’s public playground where the children of low income families go. As the result of this budget reallocation the park equipment would not get renovated for another year.

4. Does the policy seem reasonable? Why or why not?

The decision of the Mayor to reallocate the budget to invest in buying equipments for snow clearance seems unreasonable as the equipments bought  may not be used in future on regular basis. The taxpayers find the budget reallocation unreasonable as for the emergency situation additional contractors could be hired for the same. Hiring additional contractors will incur less expenditure and the remaining amount of the budget could be utilized for the renovation of the playground.

5. What might be the impacts of this policy change on citizens specifically?

The reallocation of the budget to buy equipments for snow clearance which might not be used utilized in future will not benefit the citizens. The budget that was allocated for the park renovation for the children belonging families having low income group. The taxpayers are not satisfied with the decision as they think it is not appropriate to invest in the snow clearance equipment which will be used only once a year.  

3. To meet the challenges of the rising cost of living in towns and cities throughout the state, the Rhode Island state legislature enacted an increase to the state’s minimum wage to $9.60 per hour. This is more than $2 per hour higher than the federal minimum wage of $7.25. Many workers and labor unions have praised the decision, saying that the policy should stimulate the economy and provide a better living for thousands of employees. Many business owners have been less than enthusiastic about the decision, saying that the bump in wage will not have a meaningful impact on poverty overall, and that it will ultimately force them to hire fewer employees and, in some cases, lay off employees.

1. Is this primarily a state or local policy issue? Explain your answer.

The issue of rising cost of living in the towns and cities is related with the state policy. The state legislatures implements changes in the wage policy of the state. The wages of the workers were increased by $2 so the citizens could meet rising expenditure. The policy implemented would provide better living standards for the workers.  

2. Who stands to benefit from this policy? How?

The rising cost of living in the Rhode island has compelled the state legislature to enact new wage policy where the hourly wages of the workers and laborer will be increased in by $2(Data.bls.gov ,2019). All the workers and the laborers are benefited from the changes in the wage laws. The increment in the salary will enhance their standard of living and it will also impact the economy in a positive way.

3. Who stands to be negatively impacted? How?

The rise in per hour salary of the workers and laborers will increase the standard of living of thousands of employees. The businessmen will face the negative impact of the situation as the profit earned by them will decrease due to the increase in labor cost. They also believe that the overall poverty of the state will not be improved. They also might have to reduce the employment force due to increased salary of the employees. This might also increase the unemployment rate.

4. Does the policy seem reasonable? Why or why not?

The rise in wages due to hike in cost of living in the state have improvised the standard of living of thousands of laborers and workers. This in turn will affect the economy in a positive way as the people of the state will have the tendency to spend more due to increased wages. This will affect the gross national product of the state in a positive way.

5. What might be the impacts of this policy change on citizens specifically?

The hike in wages of the workers and the labors will provoke them to spend more in order to improve their standard of living which in turn will affect the national income of the state (Stlouisfed.org, 2019). Although on other hand, due to rise in salary will compel the businessmen to reduce the workforce of their company so that they do not incur losses which will increase the unemployment rate in the state.

4. NH Route 101 is a major state highway that runs east to west through the state of New Hampshire. It provides a useful connection for many citizens to the state’s seacoast region. In recent years, summertime traffic along NH 101 has been so busy with beachgoers that locals have been forced to sit for hours in traffic just to get to work or the grocery store. To accommodate these surges in traffic, New Hampshire has passed legislation to expand Route 101 from a two-lane highway to a four-lane highway, and to increase the speed limit from 60mph to 70mph. This will mean months to years of construction along several miles of highway. Many residents of the seacoast region have praised the decision, but several citizens from towns along the highway have expressed opposition. They argue that the lengthy period of construction will be a frustration and an eyesore in their towns.

1. Is this primarily a state or local policy issue? Explain your answer.

The summer time traffic in the NH 101 due to the beachgoers has created hassle for the citizens who have to travel to the state coast region. NH 101 being the major highway that connects the eastern part and western part of the state of Hampshire. The state has taken decision to expand the state highway to four lane highways as it is under the state policy.

2. Who stands to benefit from this policy? How?

The expansion of NH 101 Highway from two lane highway to the four lane highway will benefit the citizen of the state for longer term but it would not address the problem immediately. This will also increase the ability to handle more traffic flow in the city and the speed limit could also be raised to 60-70 kmp in the national highway which would aid in handling heavy traffic flow.

3. Who stands to be negatively impacted? How?

The decision to expand the highway in the city would benefit all the citizens of the state but they might have to face temporary challenges during the construction of the four lane highway. According to the citizens during the duration of the construction it might be an eye sore and people might have to face road diversions which will create an extra hassle for the people to the state.

4. Does the policy seem reasonable? Why or why not?

The policy for expanding the NH 101 highway from two lanes to four lane highway will enhance the transportation of the state. This will not only aid in handling heavy traffic in the state but also improved transportation will aid in the economy of the state. Improved transportation in the city will improve the labor movement as it connects the eastern and western part of the state.

5. What might be the impacts of this policy change on citizens specifically?

The expansion of the NH 101 due to traffic congestion during the summer time due to the beachgoers will impact the citizens in long term. Although now the longer time span for construction can be an eye sore but it will ease the traffic flow and reduce the time for travel caused due to traffic congestion. It will enhance the mobility of people.

Reference List

Bls.gov(2019), Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Available at: https://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet?graph_name=LN_cpsbref1&request_action=wh [accessed on: 26.03.2019]

Smith, J.D., 2016. US political corruption and firm financial policies. Journal of Financial Economics121(2), pp.350-367.

State.gov (2019),U.S Department of State. Available at: https://www.state.gov/policy/ [accessed on: 28.03.2019]

stlouisfed.org. (2019). GDP, Labor Force Participation and Economic Growth. Available at: https://www.stlouisfed.org/on-the-economy/2018/august/gdp-labor-force-participation-economic-growth [accessed on: 28.03.2019]


Executive Summary

This report is mainly focused on the political views of different cities in US. On the more specific note, it has taken four cities of Oklahoma, Mesa, San Francisco and Austin. It has explored the political spectrum of the cities in terms of conservatism ranking chart. The electoral result of the cities has been equally evaluated in order to better understand the political insight they hold. On the second part the study has chosen six states, each from a different nations of 11 American nations in order to explore the political views they share Along with that, the states have been well analysed regarding different issues such as Gun purchase, Marijuana use and Same sex marriage.

Table of Contents


Part 1: political culture and election 

Oklahoma City 


San Francisco 


Part 2: Legislative decision 

New Jersey – New Netherland 

California – The Midland 

Alabama – Deep South 

Louisiana- New France 

Virginia- Tidewater 

Ohio – Greater Appalachia 


Reference List 


Different big and major cities of US are positioned towards the liberal side of the political spectrum at times when they are considered among conservative states. The most liberal cities of US are mainly San Francisco, Seattle and Boston while the conservative cities are Mesa, Ariz, Virginia and Oklahoma. This report has upheld the political views of four different cities while explaining the status of six different states regarding Marijuana legalisation, same sex marriage legalisation and Gun show Background check laws.

Part 1: political culture and election

Oklahoma City

In the Conservatism in America ranking Oklahoma stands second after Mesa. This provides an outlook about the political spectrum of the city. In this context, the political gesture of Oklahoma believes in free markets, individual liberty, personal responsibility, traditional American values, limited governments and strong national defence. As influenced by the views of Talhelm et al. (2015), the political structure of the city is inclined to consider its government to be responsible for providing freedom to people required for pursuing their goals. It has been clarified from the Oklahoma Federal State election for President and vice president. The Democratic Party has ensured 41.7% of the total votes that is considered to be the liberal party. On the other hand, 58.3% of the votes have been ensured by the Republic party that is known to be conservative party. For US Representative District 4, Republic Party has ensured the highest percentage of the votes among all four participants indicating the total of 62.8% of the entire votes. The liberal party has ensured comparatively low votes determining 32.2% of the votes (Ok.gov, 2019). Considering the polling result of the Oklahoma City, it has been noticed that the tendency of the city has been greatly on the side of conservatism which has been matched with the ranking and political spectrum of the country.


Mesa City situated at Arizona has topped the list of US cities regarding conservatism. The political spectrum of the city has leaned on the part of having a conservative and traditional American outlook (pewresearch.org, 2019). The city has ensured a basic application of conservative approach regarding the part of economy, death penalty, health care, immigration, taxes and private property (Baron& Jost, 2019). In Mesa, Maricopa County, it has been noticed that the political party named Republic has ensured the maximum votes compared to other parties such as LBT, DEM and GRN. In Presidential Election, it has been noticed that 54.30% of total votes have been ensured by the Republic party. However, 43.61% votes have been secured by Democratic Party in spite of holding liberal views and approaches. According to report about district 6, it has been noticed that Republican party has successfully ensured 67.10% of votes in comparison with Democratic party and write in candidate that have ensured 32.76% and 0.14% votes respectively (Recorder.maricopa.gov, 2019). This has been greatly visible that the city has a trend to go conservative in different parts of its political spectrum. This has been highly observed through its electoral result of the city.

San Francisco

Among all the cities of United States, San Francisco has been considered as one of the most liberal cities of the country. It has ranked last in the conservatism scale determining to be the most liberal cities of the country. As a liberal point of view, the city possesses certain features and beliefs. It basically believes in achieving equal opportunity for all. Apart from that, the most significant feature it shares is its belief that it has been the duty of government to eradicate the social ills and protect the liberty of every individual. It believes that government has the liability to generate an effective social environment in which no one is in need (Habermas, 2018). The electoral result has been correctly matched up with the political spectrum it adheres. It has been noticed from the polling result of November, 2012 that Democratic Party has ensured the most numbers of votes determining 83.4% of total votes. On the other hand, Republic has been able to accumulate only 13.01% votes along with GRN to have 1.52% and LIB to have 1.13% of the total votes (sfelections.org, 2019). This has rightly held up the part of its political view to be highly liberal in its true sense. It has been greatly observed that it has correctly been in line with its political tendency.


Austin that is situated in Texas City has been considered as one of the most liberal cities of US. It has stood 14th last in the conservatism ranking scale of America. Referring to its rank, it can be assumed that the city majorly holds the liberal views (Westfall et al. 2015). However, in certain cases, the city has held traditional views as well. This has been noticed from their Presidential electoral result where the Democratic Party has ensured maximum votes of 59.80%. On the other hand, Republic has ensured 37.62% votes. In this particular context, LIB has made it to fetch 1.85% votes while 0.69% votes have been ensured by GRN. Hence, it has been highly clarified from the electoral result that the city is in line with its political views, beliefs and tendency (Traviscountyclerk.org, 2019).

Part 2: Legislative decision

New Jersey – New Netherland

New Jersey has been a state of New Netherland that has been considered one of the most important nations of 11 United Nations. It has been noticed to be the most sophisticated society of US. it has been ethnically and religiously diverse state determining materialistic and tolerant in nature. It is not much considered about moral questions. New Jersey has been observed to have 28% conservative citizen while 38% of the population hold moderated values. On a broader context, only 27% has ensured liberal views determining 1.0 conservative advantage. In New Jersey, the Marijuana has been legalised only for medical purpose while it has not ensured any legalisation of marijuana for recreational use. In this particular state, background check has been required for all gun purchases. New Jersey has broadly legalised same sex marriage valuing the identity of LGBT people.

California – The Midland

California has been one of the US states to be considered under the Midland nation. This is basically consisted of Utopian colonies. Mainly politically moderated views among the citizens are noticed. In the part of breaking down the population according to political views, it has been noticed that 37% of the citizens hold moderated political views while liberal citizens are of 30%. The part of conservative citizens is comparatively lower than rest of the two groups determining the figure of 27% of all the citizens. In this state, conservative advantage has run in a negative figure of -3.0 (news.gallup.com, 2019). California has been noticed to be one of the most liberal states that have legalised Marijuana for medical and recreational purpose. In the part of Gun show Background Check law, the state has ensured requirement for all purchases. Apart from this, the state has displayed a liberal view regarding legalising the same sex marriage.

Alabama – Deep South

Alabama is an important state of Deep South, one of the major nations of 11 United Nations. It has been mainly developed to replicate the West Indies style slave society. The case system has been dismantled by outside forces. However, it has continued to fight against the federal power regarding taxes on wealth and capital. It has been majorly inhabited by the conservative population determining the figure of 43% of total population. 34% of the Alabama population has held moderated political views while liberals are only about of 16%. The conservative advantage of the state is 27 making it lean towards having greater conservative views (news.gallup.com, 2019). In the context of legalising Marijuana, Alabama is noticed to experience no broad laws to legalise Marijuana neither in medical purpose, nor in recreational matter. In the part of background checks regarding Gun Show Background Check laws, Alabama has not required any background checks. Apart from that, in the ground of same sex marriage, the state has broadly legalised the same sex marriage for its citizens.

Louisiana- New France

Louisiana has been considered to be an important state of New France Nation. It has been the former French colony of New Orleans and Quebec regions. It has been emerged as an egalitarian, tolerant and multicultural nation that holds a history of imperial oppression. The state of Louisiana has been mainly noticed because of its conservative population of 40%. 35% of the people hold moderate values while liberal population has been much less compared to other two segments. Only 17% people have portrayed a tendency of holding liberal views and thus it has been benefited with higher level of conservative advantage indicating the figure of 23.0 (news.gallup.com, 2019). Louisiana has been a state that has broadly legalised medical Marijuana. However, restrictions are made on marijuana to use for recreational purpose. In the part of checking background against gun purchase, it has been noticed that this state has not required checking the background of the purchaser or seller. Louisiana has been noticed to be one of the states that have not legalised same sex marriage.

Virginia- Tidewater

Virginia has been considered to be one of the most important states of Tidewater nation. It mainly refers to the English colonies in the coastal area. The inhabitants have owned the respect for authority and tradition while the concern for equality has been prioritised as well. It has been noticed that the state has ensured 33% conservative population along with 38% of population to be of moderate political views. Apart from that 23% of the people hold liberal views. The state of Virginia has been facilitated with 10.0 conservative advantages (news.gallup.com, 2019). Virginia has been such a state that has not legalised Marijuana for any kind of purpose. In the part of Gun Show Background check law, Virginia has been identified to have no requirement for background checking. The part of legal rules about same sex marriage, Virginia has experienced broad legalisation of same sex marriage in order to value the identity of the gay and lesbian community (governing.com, 2019).

Ohio – Greater Appalachia

Ohio is one of the states to be considered under the nation of Greater Appalachia. The nation has been mainly inhabited by refugees from Northern England, Northern Ireland and Scottish lowland. It is practically characterised by a commitment to personal sovereignty and warrior ethic. In the context of political breakdown, it has been noticed that majorly the inhabitants of Ohio hold moderate political views determining a figure of 38% while conservative population is to be 35%. On the opposite side, only about 21% of people have ensured liberal views. The state has been facilitated with the tendency of being conservative determining a figure of 14.0 regarding conservative advantage. The District of Columbia along with 10 different states have been noticed to adopt most expensive laws for legalising marijuana. It has been noticed that in Ohio, medical marijuana has been broadly legalised. In the part of purchasing or selling guns, most of the states in US do not require background checking. However, Ohio has been one of the states that are considered to be liable to check background against every handgun sale. US Supreme Court has stated that Constitution should allow same sex marriage by overturning the remaining restrictions (governing.com, 2019). However, in the part of Ohio, it has been noticed that statutory and constitutional provisions have prohibited same sex marriage. All of these have portrayed a conservative tendency of the state.


Evaluating all the data, reports and information, it has been noticed that US is consisted of different states upholding liberal or conservative views in political spectrum. It has been noticed that four of the chosen cities have been placed in the conservatism ranking according to the electoral result of the cities. Apart from that among the 11 American Nations, the chosen six states have been widely explored regarding Marijuana legalisation; same sex marriage legalisation and Gun show Background check laws that have provided a brief political structure of the states.

Reference List

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