Analyzing Sociological Thinkers and Their Perspectives-Sociology Sample


Karl Marx 

  1. Do you agree with Marx that the process of alienation occurs among workers? Do you agree that individuals possess a “species being”? What type of social system would best allow each to realize her “species being”?
  1. Do you agree with Marx that the establishment of a communist economy would create a more humane society? How could we abolish private property? Is this the answer that we need in today’s market/s? Be specific.
  1. Is capitalism inherently unable to foster true equality within a society? Be specific about how you operationalize capitalism and equality. 

Émile Durkheim

  1. If Durkheim is correct – that crime is normal in any society – than why do we spend such time and money to combat it within our society? Or does the fact that we do spend so much time and money on a contemporary prison-industrial complex simply support Durkheim’s ideas?
  1. What would Durkheim have to say about our current system of crime and punishment? Would he find it problematic or indicative of something? Explain.
  1. In what ways do Durkheim and Marx agree in terms of their discussion of labor? Explain your response and provide examples.

Max Weber

  1. Do you find Weber’s theory connecting the Protestant Ethic to the rise of capitalism convincing? Why or why not. Use examples from the reading and contemporary times.
  1. Consider Marx’s idea of false consciousness and compare with Weber’s belief that religion fills a psychological need for both the fortunate and less fortunate in society. Use examples from the readings.
  1. Discuss how Weber views the intersection of power, class, status, and party as it occurs in society. Do you agree? Explain. 

George Herbert Mead

  1. Are there differences between “I” and “me” for Mead? Explain by using examples from the readings and from contemporary life.
  1. How would the Charismatic leader from Weber and some of the arguments about social control from Mead work to explain political personalities. You pick the personalities to study.
  1. Discuss the validity of Mead’s ideas of “functional superiority” and the creation of a universal democracy. Can/should Mead’s ideas be applied to problems of democracy in the 21stcentury? Why or Why not?


Karl Marx

1. Alienation between the workers

Karl Marx has stated that a worker is differentiated from the other people as only labor is expressed by the worker. It is of no doubt that development of a product and its design develops according to the capitalist and not by the worker’s hand. As stated by Fuchs (2018), workers alienation in the economy brings about labor exploitation along with financial deceit unemployment and much more. It can therefore be said that according to the capitalism concept alienation occurs among workers.

It is vivid that individual possess “Species Being” as it is essential for individuals to work and be creative in the field where the individual works. Marx has stated that the time an individual differentiated himself/herself by the creativity it possess highlight will not be provided to the individual from the working field. Like the biological, psychological needs by an individual this need is of immense importance to remain in the society.

If looked at then Capitalist Society is best for realizing “Species Being” but in this kind of society every individual is estranged from the others. As stated by Barros & Taylor (2018), in order to develop creativity in the working ground every individual should know each other and must get the value of their creativity. This is the reason that why Communist Society has been chosen best for realizing Species Being.

2. Ways of abolishing the property that are private.

Communist economy is entirely different from the economy of the capitalist. Communist economy looks for justice in the society and equality among every individual of the society. According to Karl Marx capitalist markets blocks the development of humane society as the entire thing is based on market. As stated by O’Hearn (2018), democracy is the core value of any society on which justice and humanity stands and in the communist economy working quality is praised and not the material. As democracy is of concern for development of humane society no other economy will suit more than communist economy.

According to the communist economy there must be technological advances that help in enabling the material in an abundant manner. This in later will distribute in a free manner for the development of economic output of the society. As stated by Hess & Gutsche (2018), communist economic system holds mostly the natural resources for production process.

Private property as has been defined by Marx is different from what it has been in today’s society. Marx actually defines private property as the ways of production is being carried out in the factories. Marx wants to differentiate the entire thing between public property and private property where capitalist economy is stressed more. With the present scenario of market and the economical condition it is not possible to diminish private property.

3. Capitalism fails to promote true equality in the society. Specific about equality and capitalism

Capitalism in broader sense is a system that is associated economically and politically with the trade and industry of a country. This trade and association are mainly run by the individuals who look only for profit and the Government of the country or the state does not interfere in any matter. With so much of pressure from the side of the capitalist market it has been found that sustainability from the society is missing. It can therefore be said that capitalism fails to promote true equality in the society. As stated by Kristoffersen (2018), capitalism in a society occurs when effort along with opportunity and money is distributed in a society in an even manner.

When looked at the society of United States of America then it is vivid that true equality in the society is absent. Every individual is trying their level best to grab the spotlight but all of them are following the rules and regulations of trading. Most of the capitalist markets are found in this country and these are associated with economics and political scenarios of the country. In recent days economist are of the view that capitalist market or economy provides equal opportunity of work to the individuals. Therefore capitalist if stated that fails to promote equality in the society is not a valid statement. Job opportunity is needed by every single individual and that is been provided by the capitalist market.

Emile Durkheim

1. Time and money is spent to combat crime in the society. Define it with the ideas of Durkheim ideas

Many people are of the view that crime as a part of the society is an illogical concept. If looked at the concept of Durkheim then it is of no doubt that crime is really a part of society but still people combats it with time and money. One of the main reasons behind this is that society has to pay a great deal with the increase of crime over the time. People use to live in a peaceful way in the society and for that reason they spent time and money in combating with crimes. Crime is not illogical concept of any society rather it is the holder of different theories that are related to crime. As opined by Carvalho Chamberlen & Duff (2018), punishment which is being given after committing crime needs to be studied so that evidences can be gathered in a logical way.

Durkheim has stated that abnormality in an individual does not structure the character of the individual. Abnormal people must get the place and the position to remain in the society. Durkheim in Suicide has rightly stated that moral of the life is the unique study that society must read and that with individuals it is not possible for any society to exist. Time and money is spent by an individual in developing a contemporary prison which is known as the industrial complex is no ways a wrong idea by Durkheim.

2. Current system regarding punishment and crime

According to the current system regarding punishment and crime it can be said that there is a fall in intensity. Anomie concept by Durkheim and justice system of the criminal found to have a close connection with each other. Durkheim states that physical punishment is of need by the offenders. In recent time a change has been noticed in this punishment as most of the punishment in recent time is forgiving. As opined by Martin et al. (2018), most of the offenders are now sent to the rehabilitation centers and the court gives them a chance to walk away from the criminal side. If looked at the time when Durkheim stated of the punishment then it is justified that it will not match the criteria’s. Therefore it is obvious that Durkheim’s ideas will not match with the way offenders are being treated by the society and by the legislation of a country or of a state.

The current system of crime and punishment if looked at then it can be found that it is both problematic and indicative. As opined by Serpa & Ferreira (2018), the first problem is that of Anomie which states that there is an absence of the laws, rules and the norms. On the other hand it is indicative as it gives opportunity to the individuals so that crime from the society can be prevented.

3. Explain labor according to Marx and Durkheim

Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim both agree that division of labor brings out the functional model on which society works. If looked from the site of Durkheim then this philosopher has rightly stated that sociological institution helps the society to keep it alive. This has been stated by the sociologist as the time when he belongs society is under many threats. This has been stated by Karl Marx as the struggle that classes of society has to face every single time. According to the views of both of the philosophers then it is of no doubt that sociological institutions keeps the society alive and that they also mark the phases of struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat.

From the side of Durkheim it is seen that labor division has been stated as natural law that helps in governing an organism. This statement has been supported from the point of Marx in the way that division of labor brings in forth specification of labor who are skilled for a specific task. As stated by Ousey & Kubrin (2018), market has always demanded specific and skilled labor so that work can be maintained in an according manner and that there is no bias among the labor of their wages. One of the negative aspects that both of them are agreed on the same words is that division of labor makes people more dependent on the daily wages provided by an employer.

Max Weber

1. Weber’s Theory

The Protestant Ethic theory works mainly on the individual who followed Protestant Christianity. It has been found that Max Weber has researched a little of things that found to be factful for convincing that Protestant Ethics give rise to capitalism. Weber has only developed a correlation without doing much of background study which is of need for developing this relationship. This sociologist stress on the fact that renowned personalities of a country are the Protestant Christian As stated by Alaoui & Sandroni (2018), Weber argued that Protestant Christians helps in developing the economy of a society as it beliefs in the idea that earning for living and collection of wealth is the moral thing that every individual possess.

Still it can be said that the philosophy of society that brings in forth by the sociologist is interesting as the way society and behaves he thought is same in the present day. The main fault of this theory is that it tries to make a relationship of capitalism with that of religion. Weber tries to emphasize more on the fact that Protestant becomes one of the finest sources of incentives in the society and helps in the growth of economy. This has been found to be on a basis of developing a relation without any sort of analyzing background.

2. Compare Marx’s idea with that of Weber’s belief

The flagrant differentiation between the two sociologists Marx and Weber found while analyzing the perspective historically. Weber affirms that economic condition is being assembled by culture while Marx has argued that the conditions of the economy are clear in the culture and in the society. If looked at the ways Marx cited religion then it is obvious that it is one of the creation of the authority to hookwind the public. Marx also stated that religion has been developed by the authorities so that no change in the society can be brought about by the individual and that society works under the direction that has been stated by them. As stated by Picinali (2018), authorities try to develop religion so that they can make a hold on the society and gains the momentum. One of the greatest things that differentiate the ideas of these two sociologists is that Marx has defined class in society whereas no such thing has been mentioned by Weber. Marx tries to develop the society from getting capitalist to communist which is not been mentioned by Weber in the theory. Of looked at them on one hand the theory of Weber is describes capitalism which is strongly opposed by Marx. Religion has been taken mostly by the authorities as means of hiding capitalism and make gripping their position on the society in a firm manner.

3. Discussion of the view of Weber

From the perspective of Weber Power can be assessed by examine the economic situation of an individual, the status that he deserves from the society and the honor that society provides to him. Weber has observed that economic power is not the last thing that needs to be considered while defining an individual in the society and the position that needs to be deserved. In this case it can be said that the intersection that has been made by Weber can be agreed as the sociologist states that there the relation between power and honor in the society is very complex.

Weber has defined class on the basis of relationship with the markets. As stated by Miller (2018), man if looked from the perspective of history then it can be said that it is a creation of symbol which gets influence by the biological behaviors and the images rather than the images that is been presented.

Status has been defined by Weber as means of developing a group that is based not in honor or in class. Unlike the class these are characterized by a definite shape and is found to define by the honor that is been provided by society. Parties on the other hand are defined as communities that strive to develop goal according to a planned manner. If looked at the way Weber intersect them then it is of no doubt that these can be agreed according to the present situation of the society.

George Herbert Mead

1. Difference between I and me according to Mead

George Herbert Mead developed the “theory of social self” by deliberately studying sociology and philosophy. The entire theory is based in the argument that “Self” emerges socially. Mead has a firm belief that there are three activities through which the self is found to be developed. Mead has defined it as the game, language and play. Language as has been described by Mead helps a person to take the role which is other’s and allows them to respond according to the gestures. Play on the other hand also helps in taking the role of other person but it is more of pretending the other. In language the individual acts or reacts according to his/her posture whereas in language the individual pretends to act like that of the person (as influenced by Shanin, 2018).

Game on the other hand helps an individual to understand the rules of the game. As stated by Robbins (2018), if a person listens to poetry then it brings in forth significant lessons to the life of the reader and also helps in understanding the system of belief that other persons have. Mead argued that “Me” helps in representing the attitude and the expectation of others. It is also defined as the set which has organized attitudes that is been assumed by an individual. “I” on the other hand is argued by Mead as one of the responses to “Me”.

2. Explanation of the personalities involved in politics

Charismatic leader has been referred to a person who possesses some of the characteristics and makes helps in making the leadership extraordinary from the others. If looked at the political leaders of today than it is of no doubt that the charismatic leader from Weber and the social control of mead helps in explaining the political personalities. Most of the political leader if looked at then acts on the basis of Play. Before they started to act it has been found that they use to take the help of game so that they can understand the entire thing and act accordingly. If looked at the present scenario of politics then it is vivid that all the political leaders pretends to act like this and that but found to act on the way that they think to be the best (as influenced by Spencer et al. 2018).

These people found to capable of possessing the power of superiority to control diverse people. In the present day it has been found that there is a difference among the people of different religion and for that reason it is of necessary to have that leader so that diverse people can be controlled under the same roof. The act may be different as they use to follow game than language. This is done mainly to make a grip of the diverse group of people.

3. Validity of “Functional Superiority”

In Society, George Herbert Mead has described the vision towards an ideal society. The theorist feels that through the universal society, an individual can able to access full potential. This is done by the individual by helping the community at large and in an advanced manner. According to Mead, role of the society is to develop the universe a whole so that an individual can relate the society to the universe as a whole. As each of the individual living in the society is using a symbol for controlling the action and communicate with meaning it is the duty of the society to control the actions in a conscious way so that cordial relation and unity can be maintained in the society. As stated by Michalowski (2018), a society can be called ideological society when symbolic orders are been presented by the society in an accurate way.

A society needs to put forward the thoughts and ideas of its own before the other society. It is of duty of the society that ideas of each of the individual must be given importance and must be respected. But this found not to be working in the 21st century as these found to be an obsolete matter that the society must look for. Society now gives preferences only to those people who have financial strength and honor.



Miles, A. V. (2019). The Perfect Society: Marx’s Communist Revolution. Hauppauge, United States: Nuova Publishing.

Swedberg, R. (2018). Max Weber and the idea of economic sociology. Princeton, United States: Princeton University Press.


Alaoui, L., & Sandroni, A. (2018). Predestination and the Protestant ethic. Journal of the European Economic Association, 16(1), 45-76.

Carvalho, H., Chamberlen, A., & Duff, A. (2018). Introduction to the Special Issue on the Problem of Punishment: Renewing Critique. Social & Legal Studies, 28(1), 3-9.

Fuchs, C. (2018). Universal Alienation, Formal and Real Subsumption of Society Under Capital, Ongoing Primitive Accumulation by Dispossession: Reflections on the Marx@ 200-Contributions by David Harvey and Michael Hardt/Toni Negri. tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 16(2), 454-467.

Michalowski, R. (2018). Power, crime and enclosure. Revisiting Crimes of the Powerful: Marxism, Crime and Deviance, 97(41), 62-80.

Miller, J. E. (2018). The Continuing Relevance of C. Wright Mills: His Approach to Research and What We Can Learn From It. Studies in Midwestern History, 4(1), 2.

O’Hearn, D. (2018). Review of Alternatives to Capitalism: Proposals for a Democratic Economy by Robin Hahnel and Erik Olin Wright. 2016. London: Verso. 148 pages, ISBN 978-1-7847-8504-8 Paper ($19.95). Journal of World-Systems Research, 24(2), 488-495.

Ouimet, M., Langlade, A., & Chabot, C. (2018). The Dynamic Theory of Homicide: Adverse Social Conditions and Formal Social Control as Factors Explaining the Variations of the Homicide Rate in 145 Countries. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 60(2), 241-265.

Robbins, T. D. (2018). A” Reconstructed Sociology”: Democratic Vistas and the American Social Science Movement. Walt Whitman Quarterly Review, 36(1), 27-71.

Serpa, S., & Ferreira, C. M. (2018). Anomie in the sociological perspective of Émile Durkheim. Sociol Int J, 2(6), 689-691.

Online Articles

Barros, A., & Taylor, S. (2018). Think Tanks, Business and Civil Society: The Ethics of Promoting Pro-corporate Ideologies. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-13. Retrieved on 26th February 2019 from

Hess, K., & Gutsche Jr, R. E. (2018). Journalism and the “Social Sphere” Reclaiming a foundational concept for beyond politics and the public sphere. Journalism Studies, 19(4), 483-498. Retrieved on 27th February 2019 from

Kristoffersen, B. (2018). Sociometry in democracy. Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie, 17(1), 109-120. Retrieved on 28th February 2019 from

Martin, K. D., Sykes, B. L., Shannon, S., Edwards, F., & Harris, A. (2018). Monetary sanctions: Legal financial obligations in US systems of justice. Annual Review of Criminology, 1, 471-495. Retrieved on 1st march 2019 from

Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2018). Immigration and crime: Assessing a contentious issue. Annual Review of Criminology, 1, 63-84. Retrieved on 2nd March 2019 from

Picinali, F. (2018). Do theories of punishment necessarily deliver a binary system of verdicts? An exploratory essay. Criminal Law and Philosophy, 12(4), 555-574. Retrieved on 3rd March 2019 from

Shanin, T. (2018). Marxism and the vernacular revolutionary traditions. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 45(7), 1151-1176. Retrieved on 4th March 2019 from

Spencer, M., Peace, A., Turf, P. B., Hawks, A. W., Doves, P. W., & Patriarchy, P. S. (2018). Sociological Studies: Overview. Sociological Studies, 17, 14. Retrieved on 5th March 2019 from

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