DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT
1500 word essay based upon the comprehensive essay plan submitted for assessment task 2a. This essay
is to be a discussion of a specific management topic and to be presented as a review of the relevant literature
(the essay requires at least a review of the relevant chapter from the prescribed text and at least three
refereed management journal articles relating to the set topic: the use of additional references is also
Your essay should include at least three in-text citations of refereed management journal articles you have
drawn on, and indicate where you are using your subject textbook. The use of additional references is
NOTE: ‘Wikipedia’, ‘answers.com’ and other non-peer reviewed online sources of information are not
The Harvard referencing system must be used both for your in-text citations and List of References
Your textbook suggests that employees might resist change because of self-interest,
misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change. How can companies
manage resistance to change? Outline the five ways to manage resistance to change that are
outlined in your textbook. (Chapter 7)
Explain how the concepts of global consistency and local adaptation are relevant to success of
a global business. Give one example of a good or service that would be likely to succeed with
the use of global consistency and one example of a good or service that would be likely to
succeed with the use of local adaptation. (Chapter 8)
Job Specialisation uses standardised work procedures to have workers perform repetitive;
precisely defined and simplified tasks. Explain why companies use this approach to job
design. Using the Job Characteristics model, describe how specialised jobs can be modified to
eliminate the boredom and low job satisfaction associated with them. (Chapter 9)
Keeping people focussed on their work and willing to make a positive contribution to the
company is an important role of management. Define motivation and use a personal example
to explain how reinforcement theory works. Include in your essay a discussion of Positive
Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment and Extinction. (Chapter 12)
Many companies are over managed and under led. Define leadership and explain what the
path-goal theory of leadership is. Identify the four leadership styles of path-goal theory and
explain when they are most appropriately used. (Chapter 13)
What are the steps of the Control Process? Describe the elements of the Control Process and
explain how assignment assessment works at your university in terms of Bureaucratic Control.
Globalization is the new way forward for all the business that are looking to expand their business into new horizons and are looking to reach newer territories in order to gain more exposure. The process is overwhelming as sometimes business organization do get carried away by the availability of the opportunities that they tend to overlook the basic processes of making their business truly global. However, business organizations must also be flexible in order to get the most out of the available business opportunities (Gram, 2007).
Global consistency and adaptation are two important aspects of globalization process and companies must find the right balance in order to succeed in foreign shores. Through this research essay we will discuss about the global consistency procedures as well as about the local adaptation process and will align them with one good or service that have incorporated these processes into their system to succeed overseas and in this case we are looking to compare and contrast this within Australian context.
Globalization can be defined as a system that promotes worldwide exchanges of national as well as cultural resources and crafts. Globalization in broader terms means free economic operations across the lines or the borders of the countries, without any impediments by the subsequent governments of the countries. The business proposition is spread out before commencing the business by the business organizations and after which they struck a deal with the government of the countries. In broader sense there are two types of this kind of economic operations, one, is the flow of services and goods from one country to another and second, the flow of capital from one country to another. The culmination of both these type of economic operations provides another kind of economic operations which is the production of goods and services in one particular country (Samuelson, 2004).
Global marketing strategy
Markets, all over the world are now becoming increasingly integrated across country borders at competitive, macroeconomic and product market level. Almost all the existing industries and firms of all sizes are now conceptualizing their strategies on the global basis to sustain their longevity in the foreign markets. They are employing and integrating various techniques in order to gain competitive advantage over their counter parts. It becomes quite important to understand that not one or a rigid approach will be suitable for attain success in markets on a global basis, one has to be continuously evolving out of the box in order to keep on climbing and thus global marketing strategies must also be coordinated and integrated in a way that can be handful across countries and different regions (De Mooij, 2003).
Hence, one can say that there is not one definitive process or approach that can be successful everywhere as the need of conceptualizing the same can be changed with change in region and country. The theoretical and the conceptual underpinnings of the different marketing strategies must be understood in order to employ them or to integrate them into the marketing strategies (Waller, 2000).
Following a set benchmark that have worked at someplace else and then setting the same process to gain success in other region can be less practical as the preferences are changed with the regions. Global consistency is in line with the one very famous proverb, “when in Rome, do as the Romans do”. It could well be one half-baked truth because despite being it of being more sensitive and as per the needs and the tastes of the local preferences it still lacks that competitive edge that will keep one stand apart from their local competitors. Hence, it will be better for companies to set a global consistency templates (Vladimir, 2017).
In order to beat the local competitors the global companies must play to their global advantages and for that matter they must always be looking for a judicious blending of the local preferences and the global standards.
The world is a big place and the preferences changes with every mile and hence things that have worked in one region may not work in other and for that matter change in the approach is always a good idea. Same thing goes with the marketing strategies of the multinational or the global companies when they are planning to enter a new foreign markets. The placing of the products and pricing them as per the needs and the tastes of the locals can be fruitful for the companies that are planning to attain a sustainable business development in foreign shores. Over the years, companies are confused with what to follow in their marketing strategies in terms of standardizing their products as per the global benchmarks or integrating local adaptations to woo the new customer preferences in the new region (Hollensen, 2017).
Global consistency or Local adaptation
The debate has been there for a while and companies are still in search of finding the right balance to strike a home deal. However, what most of the global companies have preferred over the years is the judicious and the right blend of both the global consistency and the local adaptation procedures. While, the global constituency is important in order to gain global advantage, local adaptation is important at the same time as company’s global branding does not need to distribute the same message to each and every local market. For companies that are entering new market must respect and understand the culture and the language of the locals and must also understand the business differences in individual territories (Waller, 2000).
It is argued that firms desire, total standardization of their marketing activities. Consequently, it is preferable for firms to take into consideration the specific conditions of each market, such as cultural differences and marketing infrastructures, by localizing or adapting their marketing programs. The main concern of this approach is the impact of the external environment of the host country on the international marketing strategy. The debate between these two schools of thoughts is continuous and no solution has been identified.
Pizza hut in Australia and Local adaptation process
Pizza Hut is one prime example of integrating the adaptation procedure in their global marketing strategies for Australian shores. The Australian market is a huge market of opportunity and pizza Hut jigged their global strategies in order to succeed in Australia. They changed their marketing strategies as per the needs and the tastes of the Australian consumers. The very recent personal pizza campaign that have stirred the Australian consumers is now a first for Pizza hut globally as they have now partnered with some file transfer portal that will allow the consumers to now share their pizza eating experience with their friends using the portal (Peterson, 2014).
This new marketing strategy shows that the Pizza Hut has successfully integrated the local adaptation process into their global market strategy in Australia to meet the needs and the tastes of the Australian.
Apple in Australia and global consistency
Apple is one company that have tasted success worldwide and is one of the top companies that have sustained well over the years with the global consistency process. Their marketing strategies are more or less same for almost every region. In Australia they also have opted for global consistency over the local adaptation process due to their belief in their product which they consider to be the best amongst the rest. Apple have successfully placed their products in Australia as per the standards set by them in all the markets across the world. They do not deter much from their original pricing strategy and have successfully followed the global consistency. Their innovative product approach along with the business process innovation has placed them amongst the top companies in Australia to have succeeded despite being standardizing their products as per the global standards. They do give value to the local preferences in terms of the business processes but with their products they only follow the standardization process and that makes them gain that global competitive advantage over their competitors (Salinas, 2018).
Globalization has made the world smaller and allowed the various companies from various industries to work under one roof and expand their business to new horizons and newer territories. It has made the world a level playing field where every company has a chance to make it to the top by integrating newer global strategies. It becomes quite apparent for the companies to evolve out of the boxes and anticipate success by inculcating global strategies into their business processes to successfully gain global competitive advantage. The process however is not that simple as one have to be flexible to employ these processes.
Through this report we understood the dynamics of global marketing strategies and how global consistency and adaptation can be utilized to create a sustainable business process for the multinational companies looking to expand their business into new territories. We took Australia as our context and looked into the marketing strategies of Pizza hut and Apple Inc. for the Australian shores and reviewed how both companies have succeeded despite integrating different marketing approach.
Gram, M (2007). “Whiteness and western values in global advertisements: An exploratory study”. Journal of Marketing Communications.
De Mooij, M (2003). “Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: Implications for global advertising”. International Journal of Advertising.
Waller, D (2000). “Cultural values and advertising in Malaysia: Views from the industry”. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
Thomas, Vladimir (1 May 2017). the world transformed 1945 to the present(second ed.). Michael H.Hunt. pp. 343–345.
Samuelson, Paul A. “Where Ricardo and Mill Rebut and Confirm Arguments of Mainstream Economists Supporting Globalization,” Economic Perspectives, 18: 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 135-146.
Hollensen, Svend (2017) Global Marketing, 7th edition, Pearson, ISBN 978-1-292-10011-1 .
Peterson, Spencer (January 2, 2014). “This Transnational Survey of Old Pizza Huts is So Satisfying”. Curbed National.
Salinas, Sara (2018-08-02). “Apple just hit a $1 trillion market cap”. CNBC. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
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