This is a student identified case study of a sport for development context/issue . This case study must provide an analysis of the identified topic/issue that is clearly grounded in one or more of the conceptual/theoretical debates examined within the unit’s lecture and seminar programme. It requires a detailed and well informed conceptual and practical (i.e. based on concrete contemporary evidence) exploration of the identified issue and the contemporary social, cultural and policy processes impacting sport for development organisations and community programmes. The preparation of the case study is supported by group-based seminar work, individual tutorials exploring and evidencing your progress and a short seminar presentation that will provide the students on the unit the chance to critique, extend and frame the debates raised by the selected case-study. In addition these processes will evidence your independent work and its underpinning of your understanding of sport development.
Assignment length of 3,000 words
In order to pass the assessment you will need to:
Provide an accurate description and informed application of the unit’s required readings to a variety of sport development and community contexts.
Identify and provide the correct application and analysis of sociological and social psychological theories and concepts to relevant sport development contexts.
Analyse and give informed judgement of sport practices and policies within community and development contexts.
Evidence the practical application of a range of social psychological models of leadership and behaviour change to a contemporary issues and related policy framework relevant to a community and sport development context.
Identify and use criteria set by sport NGBs and policy makers to identify how sport can positively impact the wider needs of diverse communities
Support the discussion through Harvard referencing protocols and clear reference to the relevant supporting literature
This is the assesment criteria that were given out by our lecturer. All details and everything that should be included in work are on next two pictures.
CRITICALLY ANALYSING RACE-BASED INCLUSION IN SPORTS IN UK
Table of Contents
Racial discrimination in sports
Race-based inclusion in different level of sports
Cultural and racial outlook
Government steps to reduce race-based inclusions
Analysis of case study
Case study of racial abuse by fans
Racial discrimination at local clubs
Racial abuse in different sports activities
Sports in UK have been subjected to racial based inclusion since time immortal. The rise in sports popularity in UK started from the mid 18th century which led to the beginning of race inclusion. Individuals were discriminated on basis of their race and were segregated from taking part in sports-related activities. Culturally and socially diverse UK is facing racial discrimination in different aspects among which sports is one of the most vital sector. It has been evaluated that around 25% of sports person in UK are not given opportunity to build their career due to their race and origin.
This topic is beneficial in understanding the different types of inclusion that take place in the sport section of UK with special reference to racial inclusion. The reason for the selection of this topic is the increasing practice of discrimination in sports of UK. It has been identified that the implication of strict government rule and change in a sports environment is needed in order to maintain a stable as well as healthy sports.
The strategies of England sports are very specific which includes the investing more resource on sports and build a strong foundation. In addition, it also includes providing positive attitude in an individual regarding sports. However, the inclusion of a special group under sports representation included the sportsperson subjected to racial inclusion. Thus the selected topic has a strong connection with strategies of Sports England.
Inclusion in sports is witness in UK as individuals with different racial background are subjected to discrimination. They are not allowed to take part in sports or build their career in it. It has been identified by Rankin-Wright and Norman (2017, p.25), there is a wide difference between native resident of England to migrated people in Sports categories. Building career in sports for difficult with distinct racial background is challenging. Constant bullying and mental harassment restricts a person from pursuing career in sports. However it has been stated by Bradbury et al. (2018, p.325), the Sports England has taken up initiatives to restrict the impact of racial inclusion in sports. Different special categories has been incorporated a strategies to improve sports condition in England. The change in behaviour and cultural outlook has been encouraged as essential Sport environment development strategies.
As stated by Spracklen et al. (2015, p.120), discrimination faced by individuals in sports affected them adversely and they are effective psychologically. The constant allegation and neglect ultimately leads to stable mental condition. It has been also evaluated that sports person with inferior racial groups are subjected to physical violence. They are beaten up brutally for no crime and are treated violently. On contradictory to this, it has been stated by Lusted (2018, p.730), it is essential for sports team to have a positive attitude and treat all the team members with equally. A feeling of team is essential in a sports person. Racial discrimination is a barrier to health sportsmanship. All the members should be judged on their sports skills and not on their race or cultural beliefs.
The individual’s needs to provide with proper details for not been selected in a particular sports event and in case, the committee is found guilty of discrimination they are subjected to crime. As stated by LaFave et al. (2018, p.450), it is essential for sports community to take into consideration all the rules and regulation is enforced by government of UK. Identification of criteria regarding racial inclusion in sports is very serious matter and needs special reference. All the members of sports team are motivated to indulge a positive attitude and not to take part in inclusion activities. A spirit of team and ones is preached by all sports community in UK. On contradictory to this Licsandru and Cui (2018, p.332), stated that there are colour based discrimination in UK. The black people are considered inferior to the white who were considered to be a superior class. It has been evaluated that racial discrimination has been a long been operated in society of UK.
It completely depends upon the upbringing and cultural outlook of a person. As mentioned by Dashper and Fletcher (2016, p.95), it has been observed that practice of discrimination has been practised in British since the time of World War and colonial rule. However, inclusion of race-based discrimination has affected sentiments of sports person and they lose their interest and determination in the game. It is essential to maintain a bias-free sports environment to let the sportsperson enhance their skill and make a bright future in sports in UK. In contradictory to this Bradbury et al. (2018, p.320), stated that UK has long been practising inclusion of different aspects among which racial discrimination is brutal. An individual is not allowed to take part in sports event as they belong to a distinct community.
The sports in UK have been encouraged by government by investment of their resources and making policies for sports sectors. As stated by Mastro et al. (2017, p.460), the government of UK has taken up initiative for introducing a discrimination-free sports environment. The introduction of Acts such as Equality Act 2010 has been included in area of sports to ensure that all individuals are given equal opportunity (Equalityhumanrights.uk.gov, 2019). Initiatives of government are taken up to ensure that an individual is not subjected to any kind of discrimination while taking part in sports-related activity. On the other hand, it has been highlighted by Darnell (2015, p.402), sports is an area of competing with physical or mental strength and it has nothing to do with race or cultural beliefs of an individual. It has been evaluated that discriminating a player in a football or tennis game due to their race is unlawful.
Race-based inclusion in sports sector of UK has been an arising issue in recent times. There are incidents that describe the intensity of such discrimination on the mental stability of a person. Not only the sports community but attitude of inclusion from fans is also identified in UK.
Raheem Sterling was subjected to racial abuse from a fan supporting Chelsea. Thecae has been registered and the club has to suspend four fans. It has been stated by Premier league that anyone found conducting such racial abuse needs strict punishments. It has been opined by Bradbury et al. (2018, p. 320), it is very difficult to measure such inclusion on a scale as it is mostly related to sentimental contents. It has been evaluated that in the year 2018 there were about 1,500 arrests related to football in England and Wales. Among which 15 were for racial discrimination during the game. However, there were 44 arrests for radical inclusion in the year 2016 and 2017.
Incident of racial discrimination and abuse is very common in club games. In the year 2011 it was found that Luis Suarez was not allowed to play eight consecutive matches when found guilty of practising racial discrimination and indulging in abuse with Patrice Evra. As opined by Darnell (2015, p.410), abusing a person with different racial background is a common practice in clubs of UK. However, the racial inclusion has been considered a major issue and necessary steps are taken up by respective clubs to reduce such practice.
It has been evaluated that around 74% of FIFA fans are subjected to racial abuse international level. It has been evaluated that fans get so much involved in the game of their favourite team that they start abusing the opponent team members. However strict government, as well as sports federation, has adopted strict measures regarding this racial inclusion however there are aspects were sports person get to indulge in such racial distinctions. According to Equality and Human Right Commission, all payers should be provided with equal opportunities and should not be subjected to any kind of violation on the basis of their race (Equalityhumanrights.uk.gov, 2019). The feeling of hate among the fans for the other team is very harmful, people should understand the fact that sports should be played with a healthy spirit and should not be segregated on any criteria.
Admin an aspiring tennis player took admission in a tennis training institute of UK where he was subjected to continuous harassment. Admin was from African origin and faced racial discrimination in the instituted. Other players treated him miserably and he has to face continuous segregation. He was not allowed to play any game and the instructed even supported this discrimination. Adam then filed a complaint against the institution where the institute was found guilty. According to Equality and Human Right Commission, the Institute of Tennis training lost their licence to operate in UK (Equalityhumanrights.uk.gov, 2019). It is high time when this racial discrimination is should be eradicated from the roots of British society to maintain a healthy and diverse culture.
A murder case was registered in year 2011 where a 15-year-old boy was brutally murdered and his dead body was found among the bushes around 2 km away from his residence. However, it was revealed that name of the boy was Rachel who has been subjected to racial discrimination in this cricket institute. He was a point team captain which was disliked by Andrew and James. Both Andrew and James have a feeling of superiority and couldn’t take the fact the Rachel in spite of being from inferior’s racial origin grabbed the position of captain. A brutal fight led to murder of Rachel on 24th of November 2011. This case was understood by Crime branch and both Andrew and James were identified accused for murder (Equalityhumanrights.uk.gov, 2019). Thus, it can be stated that upbringing and cultural attribute of an individual plays a major role in building their outlook on other racial group.
Racial abuse in sports is commonly seen in UK. Implication of Equality and Human Right Commission, as well as Equality Advisory Support Service, provided provision for victims to raise their voice against the unlawful practice. As mentioned by Licsandru and Cui (2018, p.332), attitude of intolerance towards other racial group is a tradition believe of British community. It has been evaluated that with global approach and expansion of sports sectors people are more engaged with players belonging to different racial groups. It is beneficial for the sports community to maintain a proper decorum in their clubs and restrict the practice of racial discrimination. An incident was identified when Emanuel was not allowed to take part in a local tennis competition stating that the competition was only for local British residents. This incidence decreases self-confidence of a person and they start doubting their own skill. Thus, it is essential for sports federation of UK to take up proper initiative to reduce race-based inclusions.
Hence, it can be identified that inclusion on basis of race is an arising issue in UK. It is essential for the sports community to take up initiatives to overcome this situation of constant discrimination. Sportsperson from distinct cultural and racial background are subjected to continuous racial distinction in some of the other manner. The abuses from fans supporting other team are an essential evaluated issue. Fans get indulge in abuse with players from different racial origin which is subjected to serious crime. However, government of UK has enforced Equality and Human Right Commission as well as Equality Advisory Support Service to maintain a stable sports environment in UK. It is essential to provide an equal opportunity to all sport players and encourage them to build their career. Reduction in racial based inclusion will be helpful in enhancing sport background in UK and upgrade skills of their players. Players from different racial group need to be treated equally with the native residents of UK. Thus, it is essential for sports community to take up steps as well as strict actions to eradicate any kind of discrimination from sports in UK.
Bradbury, S., Van Sterkenburg, J. and Mignon, P., (2018). The under-representation and experiences of elite level minority coaches in professional football in England, France and the Netherlands. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 53(3), pp.313-334.
Bradbury, S., Van Sterkenburg, J. and Mignon, P., (2018). The under-representation and experiences of elite level minority coach in professional football in England, France and the Netherlands. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 53(3), pp.313-334.
Darnell, S.C.,(2015). Sport, race, and biopolitics: Encounters with the difference in “sport for development and peace” internships. Journal of sport and social issues, 34(4), pp.396-417.
Dashper, K. and Fletcher, T. eds., (2016). Diversity, equity and inclusion in sport and leisure. Abingdon: Routledge.
Equalityadvisoryservice.uk.gv (2019), Equality Advisory Support Service Available at www.equalityadvisoryservice.uk.gov [Accessed on 17.4.19]
Equalityhumanrights.uk.gov (2019) Equality and Human Right Commission Available at https://www.equalityhumanrights.uk.gov/en [Accessed on 17.4.19]
LaFave, D., Nelson, R. and Doherty, M., (2018). Race and retention in a competitive labour market: The role of historically Black colleges and universities in NCAA basketball. Journal of Sports Economics, 19(3), pp.417-451.
Licsandru, T.C. and Cui, C.C., (2018). Subjective social inclusion: A conceptual critique for socially inclusive marketing. Journal of Business Research, 82, pp.330-339.
Lusted, J., (2018). Playing games with ‘race’: understanding resistance to ‘race’ equality initiatives in English local football governance. Soccer & Society, 10(6), pp.722-739.
Mastro, D., Seate, A.A., Blecha, E. and Gallegos, M., (2017). The wide world of sports reporting: The influence of gender-and race-based expectations on evaluations of sports reporters. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 89(3), pp.458-474.
Rankin-Wright, A.J. and Norman, L.,(2017). Sport coaching and the inclusion of Black women in the United Kingdom. Race, gender and sport: the politics of ethnic’Other’girls and women. London: Routledge.
Rosselli, A. and Singer, J.N., (2017). Challenges Faced by African American Golfers Pursuing Professional Careers. Journal of African American Studies, 21(4), pp.605-620.
Spracklen, K., Long, J. and Hylton, K., (2015). Leisure opportunities and new migrant communities: Challenging the contribution of sport. Leisure Studies, 34(1), pp.114-129.
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