Critically Discussing the Concept of Information Governance and Information Security-IT Management Sample



For all questions below, “an organisation of your choice” ideally means “your organisation”, an organisation you are currently working with/for, or have done so in the recent past. This will allow you to develop a much more critical analysis of internal processes and characteristics of the organisation. You are specifically asked NOT to discuss Apple, Google, Amazon, Zara, Walmart, etc., unless you work there


  1. Conduct a literature review that critically discusses the concepts of

    1. Information Governance

    2. Information Security and their importance in information management.

  1. After reading the Procter and Gamble case study (Unit 2), critically discuss the role and responsibilities of senior leadership in information governance in the context of Procter and Gamble

Procter and Gamble Analytics

  1. In an organisation of your choice, perform a critical analysis of their use of information systems and information technology (including cloud services and social media) and how this impacts on staff development, effective flows of communication, and decision making in the organisation

  2. Building on your analysis from question #3, critically evaluate possible improvements to the organisation’s use of information systems with emphasis on staff development in line with organisational goals, effective flows of communication, and decision making in the organisation

  3. Critically analyse the importance of security in information management in your organisation in particular







The current assignment sheds light on the use and need of information management. Hence, at first it includes a literature review on information governance and information security along with their importance in information management. Along with this, the roles and responsibilities of senior leadership such as sponsoring programmers for transformation are analyzed in respect to Procter and gamble. The rest part of the assignment includes the effects of information technologies such as cloud based system and social media in case of a healthcare service chain namely Universal Health Services. Along with this, the effectual effects of information technology on staff development, communication mode and decision making process are also discussed in respect to the concerned organization. Lastly the importances of security in information mnagment are taken into consideration. The conclusion is drawn based on the fact that focuses on the use of IT for well being of an organization.

Table of Contents


1. Literature review 

Information governance 

Information security 

Importance in information management 

2. Role and responsibilities of senior leadership in information governance at Procter and Gamble 

3. Use of information system and information technology 

Impacts on staff development 

Impacts on flows of communication 

Impacts on decision making 

4. Possible improvements to the use of information systems 

5. Importance of security in information management 


Reference list 


Appendix 1: Use of cloud based system

Appendix 2: Roles and responsibilities of senior leadership 


Development of health care service is essential for improving the quality of life. A hospital or health care service critically needs proper security of their stored information. Information governance basically emphasizes on the use as well as maintaining proper security of the information. In order to manage huge information in a strategic manner, the application of information governance is important.

The current assignment focuses on the use of information governance and information security for managing huge information in a better manner. Besides, the roles and responsibilities of senior leadership in respect to Procter and gamble are analyzed. In addition, the roles of information system and information technology are discussed in respect to the Universal Health Services organization.

1. Literature review

A literature review focuses on narrative mode of reviewing an article. As described by Abugre and Nyuur (2015, p.163), formation of a literature review is helpful to have an overall idea on the particular topic. In this respect, a literature review is made based on the topic of “the impacts of information governance and information security in the field of information management”.

Information governance

Information governance emphasizes on handling the organizational information in a strategic manner. It covers the information of some specific areas related to the service process of the organization. For example, in case of health care organization it covers personal information related to the patients or the employees of the organization. As mentioned by Akdoğan et al. (2016, p.261), the information governance system focuses on the mode of performances of the workers of an organization in a manner which can be helpful to enhance their efficiency.

The information governance requires different components in case of different organizations. The basic need includes structure of the management and their critical responsibilities, maintaining confidentiality and data protection and lastly the information security.

Figure 1: Basic requirements of information governance

(Source: Influenced by Berger and Sviridoff, 2017, p.162)

The critical purposes of applying information governance are as mentioned below-



Developing organizational ability

It is helpful to enhance the organizational ability to measure their compliance against various laws.

Developing organizational responsibilities

It makes task direction for the staffs of the organization and focuses on making cultural changes.

Maintaining confidentiality of stored information

It aims to demonstrate the trusted figure of the organization along with proper maintaining of data security.

Table 1: Purposes of information governance

(Source: Influenced by Berger and Sviridoff, 2017, p.163)

Thereby, it can be stated that information governance balances between the proper use and security of information. Along with this, it leads to maintain legal compliance and operational transparency of the organization. The fields through which information governance is used include electronic discovery, risk management and data storage. Along with this, audit, analytics, IT management, Enterprise architecture also get advantages by the incorporation of information governance. The key regulations of information governance that are helpful to implement corporate policies are as named below-

  • The foreign Account Tax compliance Act

  • Payment Card industry data security standard

  • Health insurance portability and accountability

  • Federal rules of civil procedure

Figure 2: Key regulations of information governance

(Source: Influenced by Borges et al. 2018, p.510)

Information security

Information security is the practice of preventing the unauthorized access of data. Besides, it focuses on preventing improper disclosure, disruption, unnecessary modifications and the inappropriate inspection of data that need immense security and confidentiality. As commented by Brammer et al. (2015, p.325), information security primarily focuses on balancing between data integrity and data availability. At the same time it emphasizes on implementing proper policies without affecting the organizational productivity. It has been seen that in recent years the information security system is growing and emerging. This aspect mainly includes some areas such as information auditing, business continuity planning and digital forensics.

The information security system may be caught into varieties of threats such as software attacks, identity theft, and sabotage as well as information extortion. In words of Casado (2018, p.500), the information security system (IS) responses to these kinds of thefts through some ways such as-

  • Mitigating vulnerabilities

The IS incorporates safeguard system which is helpful to block critical threats.

  • Transfer of threats

It emphasizes on transferring the threats on another entity such as mode of outsourcing.

  • Evaluation of system cost

The IS system evaluates the cost of countermeasure that is helpful to adjust with the possible cost of theft.

Figure 3: Responses of information security

(Source: Influenced by Frynas and Yamahaki, 2016, p.260)

In order to manage proper information security in an organization seven core dimensions of information security culture are maintained. They are mentioned in the figure below.

Figure 4: Dimensions of information security culture

(Source: Influenced by Hansen et al. 2016, p.651)

The appropriate implementation of information security culture within an organization depends on five key factors such as pre evaluation, strategic planning, operative planning, proper implementation of strategies and lastly the post evaluation process. The information security system critically focuses on three main aspects such as confidentiality, integrity and the availability.


It focuses on saving data based on various policies and procedures of the organizations.


It focuses on saving data and preventing unauthorized users from applying unnecessary changes in the data set.


In case of any emergencies the information security system serves authorized data.

Importance in information management

Information management system focuses on a series of organizational activities such as acquiring information, distribution of information along with proper disposition. As opined by Hoelscher and Rustad (2019, p.100), the information governance and the information security system are greatly helpful to analyze and process data according to their availability. This leads to information management. The information governance and the information security system are involved to influence the data management system through several ways. Those are as depicted in the following table-

Importance of information governance

Importance of information security

  • It is helpful to analyze the flow of information.

  • Supports structured decisions.

  • It develops the analytical capacity.

  • Emphasizes on both the lower and middle managerial levels.

  • It deals with the past and present data transaction rather than future mode of data transfer.

  • Helpful to develop efficiency related to data analysis.

  • Focuses on ensuring data encryption.

Table 2: Importance of information governance and information security in information management

(Source: Influenced by Ming et al. 2018, p.60)

Thus it can be stated that the information governance and the information security are essential for managing huge information in a structured manner. As stated by Ming et al. (2018, p.62), the two key theories are important such as behavioral and organizational theory and economic theory to discuss the effects of information governance and information security on information management.

Behavioral and organizational theory

This theory critically emphasizes on the data handling method. Thus, it is helpful to enhance the data analysis ability of information governance. Moreover, higher level of information processing and maintenance the qualities of information are enhanced by the active involvement of governance system. This, in turn, makes the information management process efficient.

Economic theory

This focuses on maintaining economic dynamics by effective application of information security system. As described by Pantani et al. (2017, p.76), this theory is helpful to demonstrates the ways of transaction and identify the cost of transaction. In this respect the information security system in involved to make appropriate decision for saving information in a confidential manner.

Thus, the involvement of information governance and the information security system become beneficial to enhance the information management procedure.

2. Role and responsibilities of senior leadership in information governance at Procter and Gamble

Role of senior leadership in information Technology Governance is a crucial part for making strategies according to business which will improve overall IT effectiveness of the particular organization. Dwivedi et al. (2015, p.145) opined that Information Technology Governance refers to the approach where corporate information management has been done by implementation of processes, metrics, controls and roles which will treat information as valuable asset of business. Being a largest manufacturer company in USA with a wide variety of products, P&G has a huge IT department to control all the information related operations across the organization. Leadership teams of IT department at P&G are responsible for meeting with other leadership teams in business sphere regularly in order to review different products and market performance regarding the products.

Based on those reviews they take decisions about the ways to proceed further. Global Business Services had taken a decision early of using third party IT solutions for all P&G IT functionalities. However, in contrast to the above fact, leadership teams have realized it would be difficult for the outside companies to cooperate with their company and also external providers will not understand internal functionalities of P&G so that would be difficult for them as well to design accordingly. So, the leaders have decided to keep the IT functionality section in house for innovation as well as system design and architecture which will support decision making for IT governance. These IT activities have been renamed into “Information and Decisions Solutions” for supporting decision processes across P&G.

Leaders of IT department as well as management of P&G felt that Information technology is able to support data analysis throughout the company by providing software tools for analysis purpose. However, IDS can support much more functionalities of the business leaders by analytics and help to access data as much as possible. P&G has introduced a website for understanding the divisions and work functionalities of IDS which will help the leaders to improve IT Governance as well as development of strategies, collaboration and decision making process. Bob McDonald, CEO of P&G, having a broad knowledge in computer science and research areas, has understood that IDS can hold a higher value in the success of P&G in future. According to Erkan and Evans (2016, p.50), these decision and efforts of leaders help market development organizations and global business units of this company to make better and smarter business decisions.

After becoming the CEO of P&G, effective use of information and technology has been emphasized more to the organization which has significant effect on IT Governance of the company. The data from different section of the organization stored independently previously. IDS’s leadership team is able to make standards for quality as well as data type by bringing data collection activities together. In addition to that comparison and aggregation of data across products and regions become noticeably less complicated by the stored data in central data warehouse. Steinbart et al. (2018, p.20) stated that leaders are able to concentrate their time solely to the advancement and analysis of data to move the business on forward direction. Leaders of P&G have taken three crucial steps for improvement of IT Governance in the company. (Refer to appendix 2)

Strategic Partner

IDS, being a crucial component of IT Governance system, mainly focused on building scale solutions that can performed centrally and in multiple markets. It has developed a web based customizable dashboard solution namely Decision Cockpit, which can track most relevant data as well as news for individual employee. Each user of this dashboard is able to see the data and reports on their personal dashboard. Important notification about competitor product has also been added later on in the system which helps the company to plan their strategies uniquely. Data are soon updated whenever new data has been arrived as it has direct link to centralized data warehouse of the organization (, 2019).

Sponsors of programs and transformations

Sometimes leaders are responsible for technological failures even if the operations are intended to achieve the success. According to Kyratsis et al. (2016, p.245), transformation programs always need some significant changes to address regulatory problems. In this context IT Governance and IT leaders plays a crucial role in order to overcome these type of issues in P&G’s IDS department.

Long term business systems

The ambitious business dashboard system has addressed two of the main goals of P&G. Acceleration of decision making process with real-time information as well as changing the whole look of information-based system. Previously managers are spending their huge time on accessing data and how can they process it but with the help long term business system, introduced by the IT leaders has changed the perspective of data accession process.

These responsibilities of leaders and managers of P&G have a significant effect on change of their business process and boost the growth of various departments in the organization by IT Governance.

3. Use of information system and information technology

The effective involvement of information system and information technology is helpful to develop organizational service process. According to Piercy (2018, p.68), the present era is considered as the age of technology. Thereby, proper implementation of information technologies in various business fields can be helpful to spread the business process as well. In this respect, the authority of the universal health services has taken initiatives to incorporate information technologies in their healthcare service system which, in turn, helps to improve the performances of the staffs, enhances the mode of communication as well as applies appropriate strategies to for design making.

The authority of the concerned organization namely Universal Health Services is basically focused to involve the cloud based service and social media in their business process to develop their infrastructure. (Refer to appendix 1)

Impacts on staff development

Involvement of information technology not only helps to train the staffs but also it is helpful to develop the rate of productivity. As opined by Safa et al. (2016, p.72), the involvement of cloud service process can help an organization to analyze the overall infrastructure of their company. Thus, the involvement of cloud computing method is helpful for the concerned organization such as Universal Health Services (, 2019). The management of the organization provides proper training to their staffs for serving a huge number of ill people throughout the country. Moreover, involvement of cloud system is beneficial to keep back up of relevant information along with formation of virtual images in respect to the service process of universal health services. It helps to reduce the errors which are created during manual data analysis. Thus, involvement of cloud computing is helpful to develop the efficiency of staffs in accessing computer for various purposes.

The management of the Universal Health services is conscious enough to enhance their staffs’ efficiency. In words of Schaltegger et al. (2017, p.135), involvement of information technology reduces the stress of manual documentation regarding the past history of the service process of an organization. Similarly, the incorporation of cloud based data analysis system reduces the pressure of the staffs of Universal Health services. This leads to influence their working efficiency. It appears as beneficial as it focuses on more accurate calculation and strengthening of analytical performances. Thereby, the workers of the health organization are able to save and analyze records of previous diseases history for offering better service to the healthcare users.

Impacts on flows of communication

Incorporation of information technology in service system appears as critically helpful to develop the mode of communication. In this respect, the authority of the Universal Health services is focused to access various types of social media such as Email, Facebook, and Twitter to spread the effectiveness of their service system. As mentioned by Soomro et al. (2016, p.216), remotes employees can be benefited from the incorporation of communication technology. The management of the Universal Health services is able to communicate with their patient families through email and can suggest them the ways for remedies. Along with this, proper advertisements through the Facebook or twitter are helpful to make the people understand about their organizational infrastructure.

The engagement of essential information technologies appears as advantageous for minimizing the communication problems in workplace. The authority announces about their important discussion or conferences through the social media which reduces the rates of error occurring in words of mouth process (, 2019). Besides, it is helpful to minimize the misconceptions arising during in-person interaction. In addition, the incorporation of information technology such as social media is beneficial to evaluate employee performances along with mirroring their service process to the seriously ill patient. Thus, the authority of this organization incorporates efficient information technologies to enhance their employee performances along with development of the mode of communication between the patient families and the medical authority (, 2019).

Impacts on decision making

Involvement of cloud based computing system and social media are greatly beneficial for the service chain to make effective decision related to the development of the service process. In the view of Gordon et al. (2017, p.708), the information technology provides a proper decision support system to the service process along with an artificial intelligence system. The management of the concerned service chain namely Universal Health Services incorporates cloud based computing system which makes them enable to analyze information through online analytical process and it is helpful to facilitate decision making tasks. The cloud based system and the involvement of social media into the service process are helpful to improve the decision making process through a number of ways. The effects are mentioned in the following table.

Effects of information technologies


Develops data processing capabilities

The authority of the Universal Health services use the data mining tools to make efficient computerized decisions (, 2019). It appears as beneficial as it is made based on data tracking method.

Helps to speed up decision making process

Involvement of various decision making tools such as cost-benefit analysis, feasibility study makes the organization able to develop the mode of decision making. Moreover, it helps them to make decisions for predicting the future of their service chain.

Supports decision making in groups

Involvement of information technology is advantageous in terms of making group decisions. The cloud based computing system helps them to make proper solutions of various problems through analytical ways (, 2019). The group discussion mainly involves the brainstorming, issue identification, ranking and lastly evaluation.

Table 3: Impacts of information technology on decision making

(Source: Influenced by Frynas and Yamahaki, 2016, p.280)

Thus, the involvement of cloud based system and social media are greatly beneficial for the health care service chain to enhance the employee performances along with making effective decisions. Moreover, involvement of information technology is also helpful to analyze the mode of training of the employees to form a strong service background.

Figure 6: Effects of information technology

(Source: Influenced by Visser and Tolhurst, 2017, p.97)

Develop the efficiency of staffs in accessing computer for various purposes.

Able to communicate with patient families through email and suggest them the ways for remedies

Involvement of information technology is advantageous in terms of making group decisions

4. Possible improvements to the use of information systems

The organization use improved information system for developing the efficiency of their staffs. This is beneficial for them to meet the organizational objectives, maintain proper communication and making effective decisions. As described by Brammer et al. (2015, p.350), a huge number of efficient staffs can help to modify the service process in a productive manner. Involvement of cloud based information system makes the employees able to analyze huge information with accurate efficiency. Moreover, development of staff efficient is advantageous to meet their goals. The goals of the Universal Health services are as mentioned below-

  • To monitor the progress of health

  • To analyze the evidences of diseases by using modern methods

  • To use developed techniques to improve the health condition (, 2019)

Thus the involvement of information system is helpful for the organization to develop the mode of communication and effective decision making. Incorporation of social media helps them to know the critical health issues whereas the cloud based computing helps to make effective decisions on the prediction of probable solutions of the critical issues.

Attaining organizational goals

Development of workers efficiency ensures the organization to make efficient communication with other healthcare providers to modify their service process which, in turn is helpful to attain their essential goals. In addition, the group decision making process can be beneficial for the organization to apply appropriate strategies for monitoring the quality of life of a huge number of people (, 2019). Information systems are affecting every industry by their various functionalities which are helping the sectors to address data and information related problems. As per the views of Day et al. (2016, p.225), impact of Information System on health care services are noticeable due to the usage of a well known software namely HIS (Health Information Systems).

This software is used for minimizing patient flow delays in the surgery process. However, some issues regarding the software has been found out by the experts which results in less usage of this software. In order to address those issues a new framework has been introduced which have two main focused areas in healthcare IT system are effectiveness and efficiency. Harris et al. (2017, p.210) opined that this framework includes safety and system engineering and an information system approach. Implementation of information systems in Universal Health Services has a broad effect on patient’s health care regime and on staff advancement process. Information systems have helped managers and observers of the organization to gather knowledge about their employees by various sources prior to their data that are stored in system database. According to Kyratsis et al. (2016, p.245), this survey helps the trainers to make plans regarding the betterment of the staffs by arranging proper training for them.

Development of communication

The training includes better understanding of medical terms and their application on various areas of treatments as well as improvement of communication skills which will help the staffs to understand the patients need primarily and staffs will able to provide required treatment. The Universal Health services have a major issue of decision making among the staffs. Wang (2016, p.205) stated that in order to address this issue the staff development team of this organization have made some strategies and training samples for the staffs.

Development of staffs’ efficiency

They have arranged weekly training for the employees’ providing those different situations and ask them to tackle the situations accordingly. According to Day et al. (2016, p.225), long term practices will help the staffs to take better decision regarding any situation which will directly affect the employee structure and boost the service capability of the staffs. These improvements of staffs of Universal Health services will help the organization to achieve its goal successfully.

5. Importance of security in information management

Security regarding information systems and its management of any organization is a crucial part which contribution is significant in success of that organization. As per the views of Steinbart et al. (2018, p.20) information security refers to the protection of databases and other system which includes some sort of information about the business. Along with this information of hardware which use, store and transmit the data of Universal Health services organization. Information security is responsible to perform four important tasks for the organization which includes: protection of organizations functional abilities, enabling safe operations of applications in the organizations IT system as well as protection of information and technology assets of that organization. However, in contrast to this point Bansal et al. (2016, p.2) stated that there are some risks and challenges as well in the context of implementation of information security in a particular organization. There are three reasons that can show the importance of information security in Universal Health services are discussed below:

Customer assurance

Organization has to prove to their customers that they have a secure and stable network which will protect all the information of customers as well as business data and records of cash transactions. As per the views of AlHogail (2015, p.570), it is important to think about the negative situations which can occur anytime and security breach can happened in terms of monetary transactions. The organization has to pay a large compensation caused by security breach. The average cost, caused by security breach is one the rise by 30% (, 2019). In addition to this the organization may also lose their customers due to negative effect on publicity. So, Universal health services have to ensure their data security in order to avoid these issues.

Protection of online business

Insurance companies nowadays are highly interested about securing data and information in terms of online fraud and data lost. Universal Health services also have their website from where they are now operating their online services such as appointment booking or providing information about various services as well as charges of operations. According to Hajli and Lin (2016, p.115) there are so many online businesses nowadays which are usually in social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram. The rise of online product buyers influences companies to sale their services online as this process is less time consuming and easy to do from anywhere. This come with the chance of online data lost and other threats such as cross site scripting, broken authentication and forgery. Sommestad et al. (2015, p.30) stated that in order to make sure these issues have less effect on the information and operations companies have to take actions against those issues. Universal Health services have installed integrated firewall in order to protect hardware as well as software and intranet. Along with that it also required to install different independent mechanism with several levels of protection to avoid the risks.

Unknown threats

In order to have a consistent practice of security and IT maintenance the organization needs to make sure that computer networks are securely configured and able to prevent unknown threats to run the business smoothly. Several new methods are introduced every day in market to fight against these issues. Universal Health services are taking special care on this issue of
Installation of malware programs on customer’s or employee’s computer which could be unintentional and results in phishing. As opined by Soomro et al. (2016, p.220), phishing refers to giving up confidential data as well as transactions due to attack of viruses and worms. One of the best solutions for this type of situation is having a technology expert in the organization to safeguard IT systems. Melián-González and Bulchand-Gidumal (2016, p.33) stated that it is crucial for the IT professional and for the organization as well to change passwords of all the systems in a frequent manner to ensure the security of information within the organization.


Based on above discussion it can be concluded that importance of Information Governance and security is very much important for an organization in order to run the organization safely and securely. Information management plays a crucial role in context of security of Universal Health services. Appropriate information management system is helpful to make proper coordination among the staffs of the organization along with making proper design for the development of service system. Development of staff communication is helpful to meet the organizational goals.

Moreover, it can be seen that leaders of P&G have a vital role in the implementation of information management and Information Governance within their organization which has a long term effect on the company. Usage of Information Technology for the wellbeing of stuff has been discussed here. Importance of Information Technology regarding security threats within an organization has a significant effect globally.

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Appendix 1: Use of cloud based system


Appendix 2: Roles and responsibilities of senior leadership


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