Word Limit: 1000 words
In this assignment you will critically analyse a health problem of global significance from a local, national or global perspective. Your assignment will take the form of a 1000 word discussion paper.
• Choose a public health problem of global significance. Use the problems highlighted in the video on
the ‘State of Global Health’ to help you choose a topic of interest. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4mz5r6KiYo
• Once you have chosen your global health problem decide the level at which you will analyse the problem. This can be from a local, national or global perspective. If you are analysing at a local or national level then you need to specify a specific geographical region such as a city, state or country to base your analysis.
• What is the magnitude and significance of this problem in the geographical area you have selected.
Consider the related burden of disease. You must include population health assessment data in your paper to indicate the significance of the problem.
• Use the determinants of health framework to analyse the health problem in your geographical area. Again include population health assessment data where available. Is there any population group most affected and describe any issues of health equity related to your issue.
• What is the economic and social cost of the problem.
• Conclude your paper with at least three recommendations to protect, promote or ameliorate the health of your population of focus. This will lead into assessment 4 on writing a health policy paper.
Analyse your issue using the relevant theoretical perspectives and foundations, research and evidence. You are expected to use both academic and policy documents in your paper.
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF TOBACCO
The health problems arising due to the harmful effects of tobacco is a huge problem through out the world. It is a global problem which will be analyzed from the perspective of USA. One of the main sources of this is smoking of tobacco. Smoking prompts infection and inability and damages almost every organ of the body. In excess of 16 million Americans are living with a sickness brought about by smoking. For each individual who kicks the bucket on account of smoking, something like 30 individuals live with a genuine smoking-related disease. Smoking causes malignant growth, coronary illness, stroke, lung ailments, diabetes, and perpetual obstructive pneumonic ailment (COPD), which incorporates emphysema and endless bronchitis. Smoking likewise expands hazard for tuberculosis, certain eye illnesses, and issues of the safe framework, including rheumatoid joint inflammation. By the opinion of Quik M 2004, Used smoke presentation adds to around 41,000 passings among nonsmoking grown-ups and 400 passings in newborn children every year. Used smoke causes stroke, lung malignancy, and coronary illness in grown-ups. Youngsters who are presented to used smoke are at expanded hazard for unexpected newborn child demise disorder, intense respiratory contaminations, center ear sickness, progressively serious asthma, respiratory indications, and moderated lung development. According to Marks 2004, About portion of all Americans who continue smoking will kick the bucket in view of the propensity. By the opinion of Quik M 2004, Every year in excess of 480,000 individuals in the United States pass on from diseases identified with tobacco use. This implies every year smoking causes around 1 out of 5 passings in the US. Smoking cigarettes murders a greater number of Americans than liquor, auto crashes, HIV, weapons, and illicit medications consolidated. Cigarette smokers bite the dust more youthful than non-smokers. Smoking abbreviates male smokers’ lives by around 12 years and female smokers’ lives by around 11 years. Smoking not just purposes malignant growth. It can harm about each organ in the body, including the lungs, heart, veins, regenerative organs, mouth, skin, eyes, and bones. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention depicts tobacco use as “the absolute most essential preventable hazard to human wellbeing in created nations and a critical reason for sudden passing around the world.
The extent of the weight of ailment and demise that cigarette smoking forces on the general’s wellbeing is broad. According to Marks 2004, Cigarette smoking is the real focal point of this part since it is the focal general medical issue, yet the themes of used smoke presentation, smoking of other ignitable tobacco items, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine conveyance frameworks (ENDS) are likewise considered. The greatness of the general wellbeing risk presented by cigarette smoking stems from two elements: (1) the commonness of cigarette smoking is so high, and (2) smoking causes such a large number of injurious wellbeing impacts. A strategy change that decreases the pervasiveness of cigarette smoking will result in a proportionate decrease in the populace weight of illness and demise brought about by cigarette smoking. The relationship between cigarette smoking and the unfriendly wellbeing impacts brought about by smoking are portion subordinate (HHS, 2014). In this way, a general medical advantage would be acknowledged whether a strategy change prompted decreased introduction to tobacco smoke by means of methods other than lessening the commonness of smoking. For instance, extra decrease in the populace weight of smoking-caused malady and passing will be produced if the arrangement additionally results in deferred commencement of cigarette smoking. The populace medical advantage from postponed commencement, albeit conceivably vast, will be not exactly the advantage from a similar decrease in smoking commonness on the grounds that deferred inception is related with diminished presentation to cigarette smoking as opposed to with the total counteractive action of the introduction. A reduction in the pervasiveness of cigarette smoking will have extra downstream advantages by diminishing the potential for nonsmokers to be presented to used tobacco smoke.
The medicinal results of tobacco use—including used presentation—make tobacco control and smoking anticipation vital pieces of any general wellbeing technique. Since the primary Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health in 1964, states and networks have attempted endeavors to lessen inception of smoking, decline presentation to smoke, and increment discontinuance. Specialists gauge that these tobacco control endeavors are related with deflecting an expected 8 million unexpected losses and broadening the normal future of men by 2.3 years and of ladies by 1.6 years. But there is far yet to go: generally 5.6 million youths under age 18 are required to bite the dust rashly because of an ailment identified with smoking. According to Bates T 1994, Aversion can appear as strategy level measures, for example, expanded tax collection of tobacco items; stricter laws (and requirement of laws) managing who can buy tobacco items; how and where they can be obtained; where and when they can be utilized (i.e., without smoke arrangements in eateries, bars, and other open spots); and limitations on promoting and obligatory wellbeing alerts on bundles. More than 100 investigations have appeared higher charges on cigarettes, for instance, produce critical decreases in smoking, particularly among youth and lower-pay individuals. According to Bates T 1994, Counteractive action can likewise happen at the school or network level. Just teaching potential smokers about the wellbeing dangers has not demonstrated effective. According to Allam Mf 2004, Successful proof-based intercessions expect to lessen or postpone commencement of smoking, liquor use, and illegal medication use, and generally improve results for kids and youngsters by decreasing or moderating modifiable hazard factors and reinforcing defensive components. Hazard factors for smoking incorporate having relatives or companions smoke’s identity, in a lower financial status, living in an area with high thickness of tobacco outlets, not taking an interest in group activities, being presented to smoking in motion pictures, and being sensation-seeking. According to Allam Mf 2004, Although more seasoned teenagers are bound to smoke than more youthful adolescents, the prior an individual begins smoking or utilizing any addictive substance, the almost certain they are to build up a dependence. Guys are likewise bound to take up smoking in youth than females. Some proof put together mediations show enduring impacts with respect to lessening smoking commencement. For example, networks using the intercession conveyance framework, Communities that Care (CTC) for understudies matured 10 to14 show continued decrease in male cigarette inception as long as 9 years after the finish of the mediation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Retrieved on 15th April 2019.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 Retrieved on 15th April 2019.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. QuickStats: Number of Deaths from 10 Leading Causes—National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013:62(08);155 Retrieved on 15th April 2019.
Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual Causes of Death in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 2004;291(10):1238–45 Retrieved on 15th April 2019.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2001 Retrieved on 17th April 2019.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon GeneralExternal. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1989 Retrieved on 17th April 2019.
Allam MF, Campbell MJ, Del Castillo AS, Fernández-Crehuet Navajas R (2004). “Parkinson’s disease protects against smoking?”. Behavioural Neurology. 15 (3–4): 65–71. doi:10.1155/2004/516302. PMC 5488608. PMID 15706049. Retrieved on 17th April 2019
Quik M (September 2004). “Smoking, nicotine and Parkinson’s disease”. Trends in Neurosciences. 27 (9): 561–8. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.06.008. PMID 15331239. Retrieved on 17th April 2019
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