Evaluating the Different Method, Tools, Indicators and value globally used to assess the Nutrition Situation






Overview of the country Philippines

The Philippines is situated in the western Pacific Ocean. This is the country occupying the position of 73rd largest country in the world. It actually holds about 99 million populations (Bbc.com, 2019). It has been observed that this country is made up of about 7500 island but the fastest growing population is accumulated in 11 of the total islands. Philippines have conquered the position of 12th most populous country in the world whereas it has gained the 7th position in Asia. Basically it is a country where tropical climate is seen throughout most of the time in the year. Temperature remains around 26 °C. Philippines are a country which is current following the path of advanced industrialisation. It is focusing the establishment of manufacturing and service sectors rather than development of agriculture. The agricultural aspect of the country includes about 40 million man power and accounts for 17% of GDP (Bbc.com, 2019).

It has been observed that the unemployment rate is 6% according to the record of 2016. Due to the presence of mountains, the transportation system in Philippines is underdeveloped. In the recent era, the government of Philippines is focused to develop their access to improved water source. Besides this limited access to sanitation services and higher pollution rate cause pollution of drinking water. Thus, it leads to create malnutrition as well as under nutrition in the country. At present, the numbers of private health care providers are increasing in the country. According to the report of 2006 there are about 1500 hospitals among which 40% are government run and rest 60% are private. It has been recently observed that protein energy malnutrition and the micronutrient malnutrition are the leading nutritional problems in this country. More strikingly, about 50% of pregnant women and 56% of infants are caught into severe malnutrition (Bbc.com, 2019). Thereby, the government is emphasising to enhance their nutritional sources to send equal amount of nutrients to all the citizen of the country.

Formation of a data collection plan

Analysis of the nutritional level of a country is helpful to understand their overall growth of the population. As described by Alvaro & Oducado (2015), understanding of the nutritional status of a country needs to include some critical factors namely anthropometric status, micronutrient status, rate of infant and young child feeding, maternal care practices and lastly evaluation of determinants of under nutrition. Hence, appropriate evaluation and analysis of the concerned factors can be helpful to know the nutritional status of Philippines. The following table is considered to describe the use and effectiveness of various internationally recognised methods to assess the nutritional level in Philippines.

Areas for assessment

Necessary recognised methods

Their application

Anthropometric status

Nutrition causal analysis (Linknca.org, 2019).

It method can be used to measure the basic biochemical and clinical growth of the population of Philippines. This method is useful to measure and investigate the BMI rate, waist to hip ratio, skin fold test which will be helpful to understand the clinical development of a huge range of population in the concerned country.

Micronutrient status

Standardised extended nutrition surveys (Unhcr.org, 2019).

This method will be used for evaluating the level of necessary micronutrients in various age groups among a huge range of population. Moreover, it can be appeared as helpful for collecting and analysing data base of food security, maintenance of water purification and sanitation.

Infant and young child feeding

Demographic health survey (Dhsprogram.com, 2019).

In order to understand and evaluate the level of infant and child nutrition this survey method will be greatly beneficial. This will be helpful as the process emphasises on both of the internal and external survey. It will be also helpful to analyse the reasons and essential outcomes of micronutrient deficiencies in infants as well as young child of Philippines.

Maternal care practices

Multiple indicator cluster survey (Mics.unicef.org, 2019).

This process will appear as the appropriate method to analyse the maternal care practices enforced in Philippines. In order to reduce the rate of maternal mortality during the time of pregnancy implementation of proper practices is necessary. Hence this method will be beneficial to analyse the effectiveness of maternal practices to save mother’s health before and after pregnancy.

Potential determinants of under nutrition

Standardised monitoring and assessment of relief and transitions (Smartmethodology.org, 2019).

In order to understand the causes of malnutrition and identify the critical factors for under nutrition this survey method will be greatly advantageous. Besides, this method will be critically helpful to evaluate the nutritional status of the children who are under five as well as the mortality rate of the population caused by under nutrition.

Table 1: Formation of a data collection plan

(Source: Bbc.com, 2019)

The above mentioned methods are some kind of internationally recognised methods. As opined by Asim et al. (2017), the level of malnutrition and the under nutrition are needed to be essentially measured for minimising the mortality rate of pregnant and lactating mother as well as the children of a country. The following description is focusing on the effectiveness of various survey methods to measure the nutritional level of a large number of people in Philippines.

Anthropometric status

In this case, the nutrition causal analysis will appear to be helpful to measuring the anthropometric status. Lack of essential nutrients in the body gives rise to improper waist to hip ratio, BMI and skin fold ratio. The concerned method will be helpful to measure the reasons behind higher level of malnutrition, poverty as well as lacking of proper child care practices.

Micronutrient status

On the other hand, the micro nutrition status can be measured using the Standardised extended nutrition survey method. This international recognised method is useful for understanding the ways of food security and maintenance of hygiene to develop the health condition of a large number of people in a country. In words of Florentino et al. (2016), presence of unhygienic environment is regarded as one of the major causes of lack in micro nutrition. Thereby, selection of the survey method needs to be specific and useful for successful assessment. This survey method will be based on the involvement of digital technology rather than pen and paper based system. Thus, it will be helpful to analyse a huge range of data sets regarding the level of micro nutrition in population.

Infant and young child feeding

Demographic health survey will be appeared as one of the most essential international survey method to understand the reasons behind under nutrition of infants and young children of the country. In the view of Haddad & Bouis (2016), the demographic health survey method is focused to collect the data on health and population growth of the developing countries. Use of this method to analyse the infants and young child feeding system will provide support to evaluate the effect of various indicators on child malnutrition.

Maternal care practices

Multiple indicator cluster survey method will be helpful for understanding the reasons behind of mortality of pregnant and lactating mother of the country. Moreover, this method will appear to be useful as it focuses on the reasons of child disability. As stated by Jauncey (2017), improper maternal care practices leads to give birth of children who are physically or mentally disabled. Hence, this survey method critically will emphasise on global view of maternal care practices to develop their health condition for giving birth to healthy children.

Potential determinants of under nutrition

Standardised monitoring and assessment of relief and transitions is s survey method which will be helpful to figure out the essential determinants of under nutrition of a country. This method will include a huge range of verified data and flexibility in sample size calculation will be helpful to identify the determinants with ease.

Figure 1: Key areas for analysing health of a population

(Source: Bbc.com, 2019)

Analysis and findings

Analysis of baseline data

The overall assessment of nutritional level in Philippines is helpful to figure out the number of people who are affected with malnutrition and under nutrition in Philippines. As mentioned by Jayathilake et al. (2018), the level of malnutrition differs in relation to the geographical distribution of community and the number of people of different sex. All of the micronutrients are not available at all the places. Thus, the level of malnutrition and under nutrition differs. It has been observed that protein energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are the major nutritional problems among the growing children and lactating mother. Moreover, the acute analysis comes forward to frame a picture of trend of being underweight among the Filipino children. It is also observed that about 4 million of total Filipino children are underweight.

Figure 2: Record of under nutrition among Filipino children

(Source: Mics.unicef.org, 2019)

It is critically observed that the people of hilly regions are suffering from lack of micronutrient such as iodine in their foods. Thereby, it creates major problem of malnutrition. Besides, it is found to be evident that mainly the females are affected by malnutrition than males. It has been recorded that about 50% of pregnant women and 45% of lactating women are affected by severe malnutrition. In case of males the older persons are affected and the percentage of about 49% (Focus-economics.com, 2019).

Figure 3: Record of under nutrition among Filipino women

(Source: Linknca.org, 2019)

According to the report of the year 2010, it is clear that 2 out of 5 babies are born with extreme low birth weight. As described by Jayawardena et al. (2016), lack of proper maternal practices is the reasons for giving birth to the underweight children. It is demonstrated that wasting which is seen in the children with low birth weight affects about 15% of children of Philippines who are under 5 years.

Figure 4: Maternal and child malnutrition indicators in Philippines

(Source: Unhcr.org, 2019)

2. Analysis using hazard mapping

Some areas in Philippines are prone to various types of natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, ground shaking, tsunamis, and volcanic eruption. Thereby, the nutritional level of the people living in these areas is greatly affected. In the view of Marasinghe et al. (2015), the areas which are greatly affected by natural calamity, the people of those regions are unable to extract micronutrient from the soil of those locations. Thus, the people of manila are facing critical level of under nutrition as it is prone to earthquake.

Figure 5: Level of under nutrition in Manila

(Source: Dhsprogram.com, 2019)

On the contrary, the areas less affected with natural calamity have more micronutrients in the soil. Thus the people who live away from the pacific ring of fire face less reduction of micronutrients in their bodies. Various types of natural calamities are regarded as the key reasons to enhance the nutritional vulnerability among the people of Philippines.

3. Finding interpretation

Analysis of all the evidences collected from the survey method it is clear that unhygienic environmental condition takes the lead to limit the rate of proper nutrition mainly among the women and the children of Philippines. As opined by Kandeepan, Balakumar & Arasaratnam (2016), lack of clean sanitation and poor environmental condition lead to reduce the efficiency of the people to take micronutrients from the environment. It is evident that there is scarcity of iodine in the soil of hilly region. Thus, the people of hilly region of Philippines face lack of iodine in their food materials. The internationally recognised survey methods appear as useful to analyse the essential reason and the effects of under nutrition and malnutrition among the Philippines children.

It is also revealed that some people of Philippines are unable to buy proper nutritional food due to bad economic conditions. These also affect the maintenance of maternal care practices in the country. Use of the internationally recognised survey methods are helpful to measure the critical percentage of the children and pregnant women who are affected with severe malnutrition. In words of Magnani et al. (2014), anthropometric analysis is an effective way to measure the level of under nutrition. Thus, the use of nutrition causal analysis appears to be helpful to understand the overall female and children malnutrition in Philippines.

4. Discussion on methodologies

The methodologies that are taken for evaluating and monitoring the nutritional level among the children and women of Philippines are critically important. In words of Raynor and Champagne (2016), the indicators such as maternal care practices, infants and child feeding system, determinant of under nutrition are critically essential to evaluate the reasons of malnutrition among people of a country. In this regard, the Standardised monitoring and assessment of relief and transitions appear as helpful to point out the critical determinants of under nutrition in Philippines. Moreover, the estimation of anthropometric status and micronutrient status are important to understand the nutritional growth. Hence, the Nutrition causal analysis and Standardised extended nutrition surveys appear as greatly beneficial for performing the analysis with greater efficiency. Thus it can be said that standardised indicators are measured in a better manner when a number of internationally recognised survey methods are used for analysis.

Formation of nutritional proposal

The overall analysis of nutritional level among the inhabitants of Philippines is useful as it focuses to clear the fact that mainly the pregnant and lactating women are mostly affected by malnutrition. Influenced by the words of Sullivan et al. (2014), it can be recommended that critical care is needed to be taken for the pregnant women, so that they are able to give birth a healthy child. It needs to give proper micronutrient supplementation to the children who are affected with malnutrition critically. Moreover, the pregnant women are needed to be given with appropriate education regarding the need to take balanced diet. In this respect, presence of vitamin A in food chart in a sufficient quantity will be helpful for them to prevent the infectious diseases. Besides, health campaign can be organised to evaluate the health condition of affected people and according to that various kinds of healthy diet or health drinks can be prescribed to them. In order to enhance the food security a number of nutrition programme needs to be organised for the lactating and pregnant women of Philippines. Suggestions to intake energy and nutrition drink will be helpful to meet the protein energy requirement of children as well as the pregnant women and lactating mother.


Thus it can be concluded that maintenance of nutrition level is essential for overall population growth of a country. In this regard, the nutritional level of children and women of Philippines are analysed taking a number of internationally recognised methods into critical consideration. Besides, the hazard mapping analysis is also done to compare the difference of nutritional level between people living in the areas of natural calamity and the areas free from natural disasters. Using a number of effective survey methods appears as helpful to interpret the reason and effects of malnutrition and under nutrition in Philippines. Measurement of maternal care practices, child feeding process and micronutrient status are important to know the standardised areas of malnutrition. It has been observed that the level of malnutrition varies according to the sex, age as well as the geographical distribution of the inhabitants.

Reference list

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