Global Challenge Related to a Non-Communicable Disease Through an Annotated Bibliography-Research Sample


In this assessment you will research and present information on a global challenge related to a non-communicable disease through an annotated bibliography. This is a formal bibliography that includes citations of sources with summary and evaluation information for each source. Higher academic styles are to be encouraged (e.g. synthesis of sources). This assignment is designed to help you evaluate sources of information in public health. An annotated bibliography includes all of the citation information needed to find a source and a paragraph describing why the source is critical or key. This technique is useful when you are conducting a literature review or systematic review and you have a lot of references to consider for inclusion.

  1. Select a global challenge related to a NCD. Be specific and use the topic to focus your reading. E.g. “a systematic review regarding the increasing threat of type 2 diabetes in Asian women over 50”

  2. Refine your reading to focus on one element of the challenge … this is your ‘topic’

  3. You need to find a topic with at least five high value sources on your topic – these should be the best sources available, so that means you will likely have reviewed at least 3-4 times this many.

  4. Do not refer to sources that have been discarded

  5. For the five sources selected – only 1 can be a web site … peer reviewed journals preferred

  6. Pick one citation format and use it consistently in the assignment (Harvard preferred)

  7. Look for reliable, valid sources that discuss research and use appropriate scientific language

  8. As you write your annotated paragraph include both a summary of the source AND a critical evaluation of the validity of the source and its usefulness. Paragraphs should be in full sentences 100-200 words long. Length of the entry is often linked with the length of the source.

    1. Summarize the content of the source – be descriptive and specific

    2. Critically evaluate the accuracy and validity of the source and be reflective where necessary

    3. Describe the usefulness of the source

  9. The format should list the citation, then the appropriate paragraph annotation followed by the next citation and annotation.

  10. Synthesis of these 5 articles is not necessary but is good practice where possible

  11. No additional references are allowed

Refer to the University of New England factsheet posted on VU Collaborate as a guide to writing an annotated bibliography.

Identifying valid sources:

  • Look for the author’s credentials. Are they a person who has a documented knowledge of science?

  • When was the source created? Could research since that time have changed the information included in your source? If so, look for more recent works that give you the same (or different) information.

  • What type of source is this – popular, journal, web?

The depth and level of detail offered in the source. It should be appropriate to your level of understanding but use relevant vocabulary and cite research to support its information


Writing an Annotated Bibliography, Academic Skills Office, The University of New England.


Seidell, Jacob ‘Global Burden of Obesity and Challenges of Prevention’

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The article takes us on  journey in order to portray to us how the epidemic of obesity which was once only limited to the developed countries have now started encroaching into the developing ones as well with women leading the increased rate of obesity in many of the South Asian countries. It tells us about the 28 years period when the rate of obesity almost doubles worldwide with the developing countries going side by side with the developed ones. It also brings to us the universal concept that was adopted by all of the BMI index and the journey from just using it to adding the waist size to it to make it into a much more comprehensive model. However, it also points out the problems this type of universal measures receives while recording people of different ethnicity primarily the Asians,which has prompted China to create its own measure. The journal takes us down the horrors that are associated with these ever-increasing obesity levels starting from cardiovascular diseases to cancer and osteitis . It tries to bring to our attention how there will be multiple causes from eating habits to society for obesity and thus needs to be tackled together. In the end, it tries to show us a method which is being rapidly adopted around the world of EPODE which combines both the top down and bottom up approach and may be an answer to this ever-increasing epidemic


New English Medical Journal ‘Health Effects of Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years’

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The journal tries to look into the changes and the effects of the BMI index and obesity across 195 countries for a time period of about 25 years. According to the journal the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has been increasing in many other countries. The researchers for this journal meticulously researched Medline in order to find relevance between Medline and the death rates.They also looked into the Global Health Data Index.The journal mainly looked into two different phenomenons one as the obesity of children and one in adults. The change in numbers of death and disability-adjusted life years between population growth and their age structures were attributed to the BMI.Monte Carlo simulations were also used. The next main viewpoint of the study was the SDI levels which were high for women than in men. It also found out that the increase in the obesity level of children was directly proportional to the SDI level of the country. The journal then moved on to look into the various diseases like the cardiovascular and skeletal diseases that were caused due to the high rate of obesity.Diabetes and chronic Kidney diseases were also close to the following.It was soon concluded that due to the obesity-related factors accounted for 4 million deaths and 120 million disability-adjusted life years. In a nutshell, this study shows a global increase in the BMI and obesity-related diseases and a need to implement a multicomponent solution system



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This journal takes us through the endemic of obesity being faced by one of the developing countries that is Thailand. It brings us to the continuous increasing obesity rates in Thailand with the males soon to catch up with the women. It also shows us the various schemes that have already been put into motion in Thailand in order to tackle such health problems starting from UHC Scheme to the establishment of the Thai health to completely eradicate the obesity epidemic. We then move on the NHS which combines interviews and exercises in order to get an understanding of the obesity rates in Thailand with an increase of about 2.5 times in the last 23 years. The study comprises of infants obesity which shows a huge jump in the 12-14 years range which gives prime importance of this situation to both the genetics as well as the surroundings of the kid, adult obesity where the males are increasing at an alarming rate and the elderly obesity. We then move on to the various impact starting from the social to economic and health impact of an obese situation and also the various policy changes that are being started in Thailand to the level of an order to reduce the BMI index for every healthcare executive.It all ends up by giving the bright picture of how Thailand is moving swiftly towards putting policies to curb obesity, and if it continues it may soon eradicate obesity within its borders


Annual Public Health Review ‘Obesity in low and Middle-income Countries:Burdens,Drivers and Challenges’

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Researchers in this paper has discussed the various reasons for obesity which is growing in the world especially in the low and middle-income group countries and also the burden associated with it. Through various data, they have explained the exact points as in where obesity is emerging more and how demographically The behaviors of obesity differ. Moving ahead we can See that though there is a huge amount of poverty in the lower and middle-income group countries but still to Bay City there is rising fast, and this is mainly due to the imbalance in the diet among the people. Also, the overall increase of fat and sugar in the food habits of the people have significantly increased in recent times does acting as a major contributor to obesity. This contributing to various physical disorders like psychological stress, sleep deprivation, etc. For the countries are here to figure out a proper way of obesity management this should focus more on obesity prevention trying to eliminate the causes for it. It has been noticed that younger people are more trend to be obese than older people and women are more obese than men. Though there is a high chance of treatment in the higher income group countries still the level of obesity between the higher and the low and middle-income countries are almost the same.


Fournier J ‘Obesity in Germany and Italy: prevalence, comorbidities, and associations with patient outcomes

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This paper primarily focuses on finding a correlation between the body mass index and the obesity and economic conditions of people. The research is done quantitatively taking a sample from German and Italian correspondents having a healthy mixture of various age groups and gender. But please the researchers also compared three main diseases, T2D, pre-diabetes, and hypertension and tried to see whether these have an extra effect on obesity on the people or not. From various authentic data sources like German health report’s Italian medical science reports, they have tried to come to certain conclusions as discussed by various statistical tools available. During the research, they understood that the Germans are more prone to obesity than the Italians and also the social, economic status has a huge impact on the obesity of the people. The surprising factor was that by no means the researcher could prove that the three men diseases we talked about have more impact on obesity and came to the conclusion that it has no extra impact. Though the paper has certain limitations like the objective interpretation of BMI, the positives lie in the fact that every conclusion is data-based and nothing is taken just by intuition.


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