Investigating State EFL Teachers’ Attitude About Their Training Needs Regarding Teaching Very Young Learners



Write a 4000 Words Literature Review on Investigating EFL teachers’ attitudes about their training needs regarding teaching very young learners.

Research Proposal Description

What is the broader context of your research?   *

The Teaching of English to Young Learners (TEYL) has witnessed an astonishing growth in the West since the mid-1980. The Critical Period Hypothesis which holds that the younger the learner the better the language development (especially as regards pronunciation which can be easily picked up at around the age of 6) has justified the educational choice of many EU countries to introduce the teaching of English in Primary schools even from the first grade and on.

Since then, innovative educational programmes were designed and up to date corresponding teaching practices were developed to support this educational choice. Learning theories such as Krashen’s ( 1982, 1988) hypotheses, Lenneberg’s (1967) Critical Period Hypothesis, Selinker’s (1992) “Inter language” Theory and so on were exploited to enlighten the language acquisition process of Young Learners. Moreover, other factors, which may affect the specific learners’ foreign language acquisition, such as motivation, instruction style, instruction aids and learners’ strategies were examined and were taken into consideration for the design of contemporary EFL syllabi and current teaching materials.

As the carrying out of these innovative programmes has relied heavily on EFL teachers, the development of practitioners who are well educated on contemporary research findings on the field and well trained on the practical implications of these findings in their everyday practice has become a necessity and one of the highest priorities of the educational policy of these countries.

What do you know about this area of research so far and how does it relate to your dissertation?

The European Commission’s Action Plan for 2004-2006 (2003,p.15) referring to the teaching of at least two foreign languages from a very early age, Member States should consider adjustments to primary curricula and provision of training to the teaching staff on the teaching and learning resources in primary and pre-primary school.

Aligning with this indication of Action Plan, an Early Language Learning Programme addressing the pupils of the first and second grade of State Primary School was put in effect in 2010 by the Greek Ministry of Education for the first time. This programme was, initially, implemented in a pilot scheme in 800 Primary Schools but since 2016 it has been part of a reformed EFL syllabus in all Greek state primary schools. Therefore, all EFL teachers working in the Primary Schools of the public sector were called upon to put into practice an educational proposal which has been considered as one of the most important innovations of the last years.

Consequently, the education and training of the specific teachers on the principles underlying the particular innovation as well as on their corresponding practical implications has been rendered vital as “The lack of clarity of innovatory proposals both on a theoretical and practical level has been cited as a major cause for the rejection or limited implementation of innovations” (Fullan and Steikelbauer’s, 1991)

B3. What is the purpose of your research?  

The dissertation will consist of two parts:

A theoretical part which will seek to:

  • Explore the characteristics of the specific age group learners as these were described and analysed by educational theorists such as Piaget (1970), Vygotsky (1962), Bruner (1983) and so on and the ways these characteristics affect their learning process in general.
  • To discuss the influence of these traits on the learning of L2 as argued by theorists like Lightbown and Spada (1999), Ellis, Girard and Brewster (1991), Harley (1986) et cetera.
  • To examine methodologies and approaches, such as Asher’s (1977) Total Physical Response, which were developed to cater for the learning needs of the specific age group
  • To look into the principles that lie behind the new syllabus which addresses the EFLT of the first graders in Greek State Schools
  • To argue about the importance of English teachers’ awareness and knowledge of the theoretical framework and the practical implications of the innovative syllabus
  • To investigate the characteristics of effective training

And a more concrete part which will focus on the first grade teachers of English in Greek State Primary Schools who are required to implement the innovation of teaching English to six-year-old pupils. This part will attempt:

  • to trace their educational background (both pre-service and in-service) and their training needs related to the instruction of English to very young learners
  • To investigate their own opinions/feelings on the efficiency of the available educational/training opportunities concerning the teaching of the specific age group and, finally,
  • To record their own suggestions for their professional development within this context.

What are your research questions (please list them)?   *

The first part will address the question of what differentiates six-year-old EFL learners from other learners and how these characteristics have influenced the design of teaching and learning materials (syllabi, methodology, teaching materials and aids)

The second part will attempt to outline: the Greek EFL State Primary School teachers’ educational profile and pre-service and in-service training background related to the instruction of English to very young learners both at a theoretical and practical level, their own opinions/feelings on the efficiency of the training opportunities they have concerning the specific field, their training needs as considered by themselves and ,finally, their own suggestions for their professional growth within this framework.

To this end the survey will pose the following questions:

  • How prepared do Greek EFL State Primary School teachers feel to teach the specific age group
  • What are the main challenges they face in their everyday practice of teaching 1st grade (discipline issues, motivation, finding he appropriate materials/activities/methodology)
  • What support did/do they receive to help them cope with their challenges?
  • Have they had any specific training prior to this mission?
  • What kind of developmental activities would they value most? (conferences, inset workshops, a training course, an academic course)
  • What issues would they like to investigate in an in-service training session (INSET) which focuses on the teaching of Very Young Learners?
  • What do they think would render an in-service training session on the issue successful/effective?

How do you plan to carry out your research?   *

The first part of the research will be implemented through a study of relevant literature.

The second part will be materialized by means of a questionnaire, distributed via e-mail to EFL teachers in Greek State Primary Schools. It will consist, mainly, of closed questions which will be classified into thematic sections regarding, the teachers’ educational profile as well as their pre-service and in-service training background related to the instruction of English to Young Learners both at a theoretical and practical level, the teachers’ attitudes towards the specific innovation, the reasons that may cause it and the teachers’ own opinions/feelings on the adequacy as well as the efficiency of their training. There will, also, be some open-ended questions which will aim to pick up their needs and record their own suggestions for development through training /education. Both qualitive and quantitive data will be collected from Greek State Primary School EFL teachers whose age and experience will vary.

There will, also, be some structured interviews which will attempt to “not merely accumulate information, but to deepen understanding” (Richards, 2003).

The use of two methods (questionnaire and interviews) can assist “a blend of quantitative and qualitative data by combining numbers gathered from questionnaires with oral data recorded in face-to-face interviews” (Ivankova & Creswell, 2009).

Quantitative data will be analyzed using percentages. Qualitative data will be coded, categorized and analyzed into themes.

What are the expected outcomes of your research and its implications for EFL?

The collected data will bring to light possible mismatches between the instructors’ actual education and training and the real challenges which are posed by the specific learners’ needs as described by the worldwide literature on the field.

Implications concerning the teachers’ effective training/education on the specific area, based on their needs as these will be reflected in the analysis of the results of the survey, are expected to emerge. Therefore, certain suggestions will be provided so that the instructors’ professional development within the particular framework is promoted.



Table of Contents


Characteristics of age group learners 

Discussion of learning traits by following theories 

Methodologies and approaches 

Principles which addresses EFLT of first graders in Schools of Greek State 

Arguments concerning awareness of English Teachers 

Practical implications of innovative syllabus 

Characteristics of efficient training 

Implementation of English Teaching 

Educational background 

Pre-service and in-service 

Training opportunities 

Suggestions for training for professional development 

Linking with literature

Gap in Literature 

Conceptual Framework

Figure 7: Conceptual framework 


Reference list 


The present research assignment is aimed at analysis of English Teacher Training needs and requirements to provide teaching guidelines and skills to six pupil age students in Greek Schools. Different theoretical learning approaches and theories would be discussed in this literature review portion of research. In addition, theories like Piaget learning theory of 1970, Lightbrown & Spada theory of 1999 and much more have been used to understand importance and characteristics of learning in schools.

Educational background, principles of new syllabus for learning of English as Foreign Language (EFL) would be included here. Various training opportunities would be highlighted to provide teaching to group of specific age. Finally, importance of professional development is mentioned for better improvement of EFL learning for teachers of Greek State Schools. Greek teachers considered EFL as their second language of learning.

Characteristics of age group learners

According to Piaget theory of 1970, Greek teachers can transform information; construct knowledge by regulating new information in place of old one. Greek teachers would be able to provide requisite learning in English language, especially to those who belongs to six age learners in State Schools. They can be able to revise rules of learning whenever required to teach all pupils who belongs to six group of age. This theory is actually regarded as constructivism learning conception, which focuses on learning goals to determine authentic outcomes from learning objectives. Constructivism concept of learning acts as appropriate teaching paradigms, which would provide benefit to all Greek teachers. This theory is considered as problem solving method as it solves every issue, which are associated with learning in schools. For instance, through this theory, teachers would be able to establish learning based on social cognition to produce deliverable of a “mental construction”. Furthermore, students would be able to obtain learning through new information source, which would help them to develop their positive beliefs as well as attitudes.

Figure 1: Concept and Benefits of Constructivism in Piaget theory (1970)

(Source: Demetriou, Shayer and Efklides, 2016)

This theory would allow six age pupils learners to learn more with the help of learning skills like active listening, agility, critical thinking, problem solving and many more. For instance, theory would allow the six age learners to become active listeners rather than positive listeners in schools. As cited by Bada and Olusegun (2015), this theory is transferable and permits ownership of students through means of close engagement process. Apart from this, this theory would also promote social skills and skills of communication by developing suitable classroom environment which can emphasizes collaboration, new ideas exchange among first graders. Hence, absence of tabula rasa in this perspective is etched. While learning EFL, teachers can “discuss” with others to evaluate contributions and attain success by meeting student’s needs. This is because constructivism model in Piaget theory talks about negotiation between teachers and learners in schools. Therefore, this fact would be much more advantageous for both Greek teachers and students who want to switch EFL in schools. Besides this, in concern to meet needs of students, some of the examples consist of making of personal investments, research reports, and artistic representations.

As per Vygotsky Theory of 1962, Greek teachers would provide education to first grades students with help of both socio-cultural concepts in psychology. This theory would increase interaction by using language as meditational tool. As language is of great importance in this aspect, it is evident that skills of EFL can be promoted by the Greek teachers effectively. According to Plaza (2017), dialogic learning theory is explained with two basic principles that help in meeting needs of language by the teachers. The basic two principles are egalitarian dialogue, instrumental dimension. Vygotsky theory would allow EFL to construct it by making sense of inter-subjectivity, which can make strong engagement between individuals. As strong engagement can be created through Vygotsky theory, it is therefore evident that Greek teachers would have positive interaction with six age learners. In addition, teachers can be able to solve pedagogies related problem with the learners in State Schools.

Figure 2: Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development

(Source: Created by author)

Apart from this benefit, this theory would enhance deliberate tools to accomplish purposes of students such that learning can develop and generalize cognitive learning development. Hence, contemporary learning can be assessed in schools by the teachers with language-based actions like explaining, reasoning, asking instrumental questions for student’s encouragement to establish and enforce meta-cognition knowledge. Thus, concept of second acquisition of language (SLA) that refers to English Language in this research can grow with help of Vygotsky theory for teenagers like 6-age pupils (Oliver and Azkarai, 2017).

Bruner theory (1983) has critique approach of social environment education, school environment that means it provides second language learning with effective experiences to gather environmental education guidelines. Bruner’s theory is called theory of scaffolding to underpin pedagogical approach via Wood theorist. Through this model, Greek teachers can be able to set out situation by which children or graders can easily attain success and handle role to manage skill. It is usually used by Forest Schools of UK to integrate and ensure learning on social environment and school environment. Thus, the teachers of Greek can provide this type of education in English language in a profound manner. Like in introducing necessary classroom activities to students or provide teaching of EFL (Krashen, 2006, p.68).

Figure 3: Wood model used in Bruner’s Scaffolding Theory of 1977

(Source: Leather, 2018)

This theory has great significance in understanding environment knowledge or education on environment in Schools. Hence, EFL can be created through playing based that would be child initiated learning in mechanical means. State schools can thus found effective EFL by developing ownership as well as pride in local environment on behalf of six age learners.

Discussion of learning traits by following theories

According to theory of Lightbrown & Spada (1999), learning traits can be influenced by offering opportunities to develop close engagement through compelling. This can negotiate meaning of learning to express intentions, thoughts, and opinions in field of SLA. The six age pupils would therefore be able to hypothesize proficiency gains by enabling active interaction in presence of more than one-advanced teachers. This means this theory can be used more than one Greek teacher in a single time to offer EFL to young learners. In addition, this theory would also incorporate scaffolding structures in preparing EFL in terms of many activities (Hall, 2017). Modelling, repetition, simplification in linguistic languages, are certain techniques of teaching, which can be obtained through this theory. Through these techniques and advantages of Lightbrown & Spada theory, it can be said that young learners can seek education functions within proximal zone of learning development.

According to Maasum, Mustaffa and Stapa (2015), it is reported that young learners facilitates teaching and learning by their teachers which added 93.75% value in handling games of languages. Besides this, this theory also expresses opinions in context of non-threatened during close interaction among teachers and facilitators. This has achieved happy diversion in approaching activities, which are sorted in a regular classroom. Moreover, this theory would permit six age learners to modify and reconstruct goals whenever required. In particular, internationalists that are Greek teachers can comprehend hypothesis to obtain desired outcomes. Program of EFL can be ensured by producing English language in comprehensive manner by using strategies like visuals use, pictures, graphic orientation and much more.

From Ellis, Girard & Brewster theory (1991), it is known that superiority idea helps to gain high language proficiency level in field of learning. In this aspect, young learners are powered and supported by Hypothesis of Critical Period. This subject to long-standing understanding of linguistic as well as language acquisition, which would relate to achieve goals of EFL by Greek teachers. This theory would help teachers to focus on interactional competency skill orally which would not only resolve indirect language meaning but also offer high learning opportunities to improve superior performance level of learning. Thus, teachers can provide English learning and investigate student’s needs by powerful understanding. In this concern, young learners would have a tendency of self-oriented especially during pronunciation, intonation and so on (Hu, 2016).

The theory is mostly used in classroom implementation program to prepare English language Program of Teaching (ELTP) to practice linguistic language studies with all six-age students (, 2019). This theory would develop language acquisition with best learning approach, which is necessary for childhood development.

Theory of Harley of 1986, states that acquisition of language occurs in faster forms for the late beginners to hypothesize learning into better position, for example young learners. Moreover, this theory can critically differentiate learning based on age evidence. For instance, young learners would be able to provide evidences with language skills like grammar while devising EFL (Gürsoy and Eken, 2018). On the other hand, older learners achieve better performance in SLA areas of learning. In this way, critical period of learning is evaluated by using this theory with cited importance of learning abilities.

This theory believed in producing longer outcomes where EFL play a vital role to start and provide learning at early age. Thus, L2 acquisition along with learning research is demonstrated in school age.

Methodologies and approaches

Asher’s Total Physical Response (TPR) of 1977 is used to as methodological approach to ensure methodology of English Teaching and Vocabulary. This theory has developed English learning and help to provide it to the students by command. Command acts as understanding attribute between learning activities, which involve bodily movements, and physical responses like modelling. Greek teachers can use different teaching method to deliver learning skills through this theory. Teaching of Communicative Language (CLT), Suggestopedia is the some of the examples, which help to evaluate effective learning skills to the young learners in schools.

Like Bruner’s theory, use of environmental education is not present in this Asher Physical Response. TPR can help children by giving EFL with help of simple answers and gestures like commands. Teachers can thus interact and respond to students through help of these commands. It gives right experiences to observe learning of first grades and hypotheses learning based on three observations. This includes engagement of learning by responding through right brain hemisphere. Active listening process and language that did not produce stress are also responsible in this concern to evaluate efficient observation of learning. This method includes relied variation, poster presentation lessons to incorporate TPR lessons by teachers (Yusuf et al. 2017). Hence, this is used as alternative teaching process to provide learning abilities like EFL to six age pupils.

Principles which addresses EFLT of first graders in Schools of Greek State

English learning in Greek states is not a new context. Greece being an imperative part of European Union requires being very proficient in English. This is the reason that English as Foreign Language (EFL) is a basic requirement in Greek states. English also aids in provision of a common bridge between Greece and outside world. It is also seen that if better implementation is done at very young age, that is first grade, learners will achieve a strong foundation. Hence, there is an immense need for better teaching methods where English is not the first language.

Principles that are required to address in efficient training are acknowledging, listening, challenging and supporting (, 2019). This aids in understanding young children and how teachers may better implement these principles in their training. They are described as follows:

  1. Acknowledge- There is a need to acknowledge students’ individuality. These students are those that makeup class group. They do so and show that teachers value what these students are bringing to group.

  2. Listen- Teachers are required to listen to what these young kids are trying to convey. This is so because they are young and do not have enough proficiencies like their adult counterparts do (Basal, 2015). There should be no pre-judgments to things or issues they are trying to convey.

  3. Challenge- This golden principle is very much necessary for teachers that are trying to teach to 1st graders. Teachers are required to make sure and understand that they are providing enough sense of challenge. These challenges are based on what a teacher needs young children to do.

  4. Support- Finally, teachers must support their students, especially young ones. This provision of support is done while young children are struggling to complete their challenges. As cited by Childs et al. (2016), it is evident that it is an easy way, however, enough amount of practice is necessary.

Figure 4: Principles of teaching

(Source: Peachey and Maley, 2015)

Arguments concerning awareness of English Teachers

Awareness and basic knowledge of theoretical framework is an important aspect for English teachers. In Greece, frameworks like Cross-Thematic Unified Curriculum Framework (CTUCF) and Individual Subject Curricula (ISC) are incorporated (Papadopoulos and Griva, 2014). They aid in providing basis for teaching. These frameworks are innovative and provide better learning methodologies for young children. In primary education, it is evident that for English Language, 1 hour each week is being dedicated for 1st graders. According to Enever, Moon and Raman (2009), this helps to do better implementation process by organizing program of teacher’s awareness. After awareness is organized, it is evident that final quality of learning can be achieved in schools. Teachers are also required to be aware of their skills that they have to impart at schools for 1st graders.

New frameworks that are being implemented in Greece and other European countries are based on motivation. Motivation provides more than half interest and curiosity for young learners.

Practical implications of innovative syllabus

There is immense practical implication on innovative syllabus. According to Mohebbi (2012), teachers are well known for it. This is the reason that Greece and many other countries do that specifically. 1st graders are not given any extra class other than their scheduled 1 hour each week. Literacy programs are implemented at very young age so the students get habituated. English as second language (L2) is necessary to be implemented at a very young age. Hence, it is included in teaching framework. In accordance with L2, teachers are required to mould themselves.

Three syllabuses are involved for practical implications on which some topics, language area, objectives of linguistics and education are mentioned below.

A class syllabus

In A syllabus, English class, mascot, names in English, words common are the topics. B2 topics would cover learning of fun with the animals, colours, living on farm, party in jungle, foods, sweets. Total C10 chapters are there in this A syllabus material wherein total D6 topic are there in D chapters with topics such as three little pigs, little red riding hood and so on. E1 is Halloween, E2 is Christmas fun, E3 carnival and much more syllabus would be covered in this syllabus.

B class syllabus


Linguistic objectives

Objectives of pedagogy

Language focus



  • Greetings recycling in English

  • Revision of plural nouns

  • Group participation

  • Imitation

  • Familiarization

  • Development of motor skills

  • What is name of learner?

  • Good morning


Me and friends

Love winter

  • Vocabulary exposure to family

  • Snowman description

  • Sharing personal experience in classroom

  • Song dramatization

  • Knowing name of family members

  • It is cold or snowing or raining

C1- C9

Week days and weekly activities

Happy birthday

  • Familiarization

  • Description of weekly activities of people

  • Familiarization with Qq

  • Recycling of numbers

  • Entertainment through songs

  • Pre-writing type activities

  • Recognition of month

  • Familiarity with order as well as months with respective year

  • Setting days of week like Sunday, Monday and so on

  • Seasons and months

  • Numbers

D1- D9

Good Morning

Lucky envelope

  • Listening practice

  • Greetings recycling

  • Exposure to innovative vocabulary

  • Linking pictures

  • Use key words to guess word meaning

  • Idea of sensitization

  • Cooperation

  • Good morning

  • Summer vacation

  • Camping


Halloween bat

Year end play

  • Familiarization with intonation

  • Singing songs of family

  • Repetition, imitation

  • Participation in play

  • Self-esteem development

  • Instructions like cardboard use

  • Words revision, songs

C-class syllabus


Linguistic objectives

Objectives of pedagogy

Language focus


  • English alphabet presentation

  • Problem solving development

  • Colours identification

Unit 1 lesson 1-3

School fun, classroom

  • Presentation of the vocabulary to schools, classroom

  • Revision of phrases

  • Singing

  • Playing

  • Look!

  • Let’s go to school

Unit 2

Story description

  • Recycling of language

  • Dramatization

  • No, I cannot

Unit 3


  • Structures practice

  • Group work

  • I’m sorry

Unit 4-8

Do best

  • Recycling of vocabulary used in familiarization

  • Problem solving development

  • Visit people?

  • Need of toys?

Table 1: B and C class Syllabus

(Source: Sifakis and Bayyurt, 2015)

Characteristics of efficient training

Effective training mostly formulates 5 characteristics that are most common. They are described as follows:

  • Teacher-student relationship- It is described on teacher’s training. Better teachers are able to create better form of relationship with their students. It is also very important for L2 in Greek primary Schools; there is a great requirement for bond creation. This is so because English is a foreign language and that to a very subjective one.

  • Personality- This characteristic is needed for every teacher. Teacher disposition is correlated to better student development and learning (Abolfazli Khonbi and Sadeghi, 2013).

  • Knowledge- Better cognitive development is needed by teachers. Training aids in fulfilling this aspect.

  • Dedication- Training provides better form of dedication to teachers. According to Tsagari and Sifakis (2014), being passionate about this job is what makes teachers different than other professionals.

  • Engagement- Mere implementation of training is not enough. Concrete engagement is needed by teachers as soon as they gather techniques from training.

Figure 5: Characteristics of efficient training

(Source: Cable et al. 2010)

Sessions of training tend to cover different topics regarding pedagogy. Language organisation is also seen (Cable et al. 2010). This means understanding of language in effective way with help of different teaching techniques and methods as discussed in aforementioned concepts. Approach of teachers towards cross-curricular learning and understanding of different culture is evident also.

Implementation of English Teaching

English, as foreign language, is seen to require greater focus on cognitive development of students. More focus is also provided on creating a better student-teacher relationship and efficient engagement by teachers. According to Sifakis and Bayyurt (2015), it is evident that in Greece, examinations that typically focus on higher staked learning are mostly monolingual. Similarly, it is also true for context of expanding circles. Implementation of teaching English as L2 or L1 in Greek Primary Schools require to be bilingual as possible. This is so because being monolingual creates dilemma for young students. L1 or L2 teachings have to done in presence of dilemma to meet targets. In addition, mother tongue of six age pupils can also be used in this concern for instruction. Bernstein’s theory can be used to direct close relationship between social class and language in classroom (Harris and Duibhir, 2011). Play school exam has to be organized for them. TEFL can also be performed in this concern.

English teaching for very young learners (VYLs) needs rigorous teaching. It is to be understood that this teaching method has to be included in stipulated time. After successful implementation of learning principles, these frameworks are then needed to be implemented. A transformative and critical form of education is needed in Greek Primary Schools for VYLs. According to Sifakis (2014), it will aid in stressing the role of teachers as a mentor in class. Interesting methodologies are also necessary to be included. An eclectic methodology of teaching is presumed to shape the entire teaching front for VYLs and Greek Primary Schools. It is required for primary level of education to provide teaching training effectively. Elementary school can then be able to provide teaching in two grades A and B.

Educational background

Teachers that are to teach English as foreign language require various degrees. There has been very less insight into what actual background of teacher education. However, clear and concise notions of what Greek primary schools require. In most of Greece and other European Union countries, an examination named Teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFL) is performed to test for six age pupils. Greek EFL teachers have to be qualified with bachelor degrees to seek teaching to these young learners. Sit exams have to be appointed to standardized student’s learning position. Clearing this exam will land teachers a certificate that aids in teaching at any primary school or related language schools. As suggested by Van der Heijden et al. (2015), it is also evident that many teachers are required to clear C1 exam. It is a monolingual exam and may vary in different schools. Furthermore, educational background for Greek teachers requires better acquaintance with computer. Whenever required, teachers must use computer and internet sources to provide practical application of this language. This aids in promoting lifelong learning (Fichman, Dos Santos and Zheng, 2014). This teacher should also take training before starting teaching with help of pre service context at university level. Moreover, they can took training through institutions such as British Council, electronic platform of PEAP or other such platform which would help to provide adequate teaching training on English (Nikolov, 2009).

Pre-service and in-service

Pre-service teachers’ education is a collection of related degrees that a teacher possesses before entering in school service. There has been very little depth in acquiring knowledge in what pre-service teaching proficiencies are there in Greece. However, it is evident that pre-service programs are specifically intended to provide support teachers and enhance their instil of learning (Edelenbos, Johnstone and Kubanek, 2006). This aids in providing bigger deal of self-confidence. In-service education relates to those that a teacher acquires after their training is completed. These experiences and very little quirks are required to survive in Greek Primary school for teaching English as L2.

In English language, there is a basic requirement for teachers to have a bachelor degree in English. If a teacher possesses a higher degree, it is also welcomed by Greek schools. Apart from this, teachers that are to teach L2 or L1 need to use principles of teaching in better way. This is attained by teacher training. According to Harding, Alderson and Brunfaut (2015), there are various teaching degrees that aid teachers in landing better positions in schools. In this case, they require a bachelor’s in education. Other than that, aforementioned exams are also required to be passed.

Figure 6: Educational background

(Source: Hoang, 2014)

Suggestions for training for professional development

  • Teachers that require training must have knowledge regarding linguistics and backgrounds.

  • There is a need to be motivated so that English is learned. This also provides requisite motivation for teachers to be in VYL and then teach them (Brumen, 2011).

  • Style of teaching, varieties in language and multilingualism is necessary for all such participants.

  • Analysis of English language, its awareness, skills in different parts of subject and professionalism are some final parts that are included in these training sessions.

Linking with literature

All aforementioned literature is requisite so that better understanding of research object is grasped. It has been evident that there are many theories and concepts that requires intervention. However, much that is done is enough so that research objectives are met. In European Union, there has been an increase in expenditure in fields of education and research. It is also evident that more learners and teachers are delving in this field. 42% of pupils have independent user. 25% have already reached to level of L2 (, 2018). This learly indicates that there is an immense requirement for more teachers to be professionally trained in English. It is evident that if this language is dealt with such lower age gap, pupils and VYLs will have more time to rectify themselves in due course of time.

Piaget’s theory provides transformation of information that leads to construction of knowledge. Constructivism in Greek primary schools is necessary. Teachers are to be trained enough so that they are able to link professional principles and this theory for betterment of VYLs. Vygotsky’s theory correlates Greek’s socio-cultural aspect of learning. It is also an important aspect that is needed to be incorporated (, 2019). Bruner’s theory of scaffolding requires many aspects of learning to coexist in a single realm. Implementation of this theory will require teachers of Greece and higher officials to come together and plan better pathway for VYLs. ELTP acquires a lot of benefit from theory of Ellis, Girard and Brewster. Finally, TPR and CLT are also being considered important.

Gap in Literature

Aforementioned literature has provided enough bases for complete description of attitude towards training. However, these literatures are unable to describe a few aspects of training. Exact notion for teachers is unable to be found. Greek teachers that are currently teaching many have fewer requirements for training. Their version is also not deduced from aforementioned literature. These literatures have very easily found a training method that is famous all around Europe. Furthermore, aforementioned literature has also not shown a tiny speck of current global scenario.

Conceptual Framework


From the above discussion, it is concluded that English is a common juncture that provides speakers to communicate effortlessly. The PEAP syllabus is innovative training of teachers, which should be provided to EFL teachers of Greek for learning implementation. A, B and C Syllabuses are discussed thoroughly along with requisite teaching training which would be beneficial for six age learners. Learning of English can thus be obtained in an effective way. In current age of globalisation, this language is playing a key role. Hence, there is a requirement for teachers to train themselves requisitely. After this training is achieved, they will be able to provide required learning experience to VYLs.

Reference list


Demetriou, A., Shayer, M. and Efklides, A., 2016. Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Implications and applications for education. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Edelenbos, P., Johnstone, R. and Kubanek, A., 2006. The main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of languages to very young learners. Brussels: European Commission, Education and Culture, Culture and Communication Multilingualism Policy.

Enever, J., Moon, J. and Raman, U., 2009. Young learner English language policy and implementation: International perspectives. Garnet Publishing.

Hall, G., 2017. Exploring English language teaching: Language in action. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Nikolov, M. ed., 2009. Early learning of modern foreign languages: Processes and outcomes (Vol. 38). Multilingual Matters.

Peachey, N. and Maley, A., 2015. Creativity in the English language classroom. British Council.

Pinter, A., 2011. Children learning second languages. Springer.


Abolfazli Khonbi, Z. and Sadeghi, K., 2013. Self-, peer-, and teacher-assessment: An investigation into Iranian EFL students’ attitudes. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching3(1), pp.87-107.

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