Need a literature review on the topic “How does speech hesitation affect human-machine dialogue” of 1700 words covering the topics-
What are speech interfaces?
Examples of speech interfaces.
Extend of including humanness.
The end needs research questions & hypotheses based on the gaps in the literature.
All the citation and references should be given in APA format.
Table of Contents
1.1 Identification of research topic
1.2 Importance of the problem
2.0 Review aim
3.0 Literature review
3.1 Speech Interfaces
3.2 Examples of Speech Interfaces
3.3 Extend of Including Humaneness
3.4 Reason for hesitation as our topic selection
4.0 Research Questions
With the era of machines almost upon us, it has become very natural of various machines and interfaces being created which not only listen to what we have to say but also process and give out an apt response to it. These speech interfaces are the new revolution in the world of technology, and though still now they are in the starting phase they are soon to give way to their more advanced counterparts like robots, etc. However, all the success also depends on the human user who is using it and speech impairment and hesitation are one of the main factors that affect not only the efficiency of an interpersonal communication but communication as a whole. We will use the combination of the two to look a bit deeper into this industry
With the speech interfaces becoming an everyday instrument in the life of people with providing a huge help in the situation where hands cannot be used it needs to be full-proof providing similar sort of support to people of all kind of requirements. Speech hesitation, on the other hand, is a problem that affects almost everyone in different parts of the life due to a lack of confidence focus or preparedness and technology that is built on the idea of creating a companion, or a person needs to take this into account to even think of being a success (Ewa Luger. (2016).)
To look into the various technological advances that have happened in the speech interface industry
To have a brief look into the speech hesitations and why it is caused
To give a roadmap and a suggestion on how this can be tackled by the speech interfacing machines
The review mainly aims to look into a bit more details into the avenue of speech interfacing machines, the ever-present characteristic of human hesitating in their speech. How can such type of hesitation be identified and if possible catered to and also how can the machine learn through the above-mentioned ideas how to gracefully tackle such hesitation and truly give the experience of talking to another person that it has been continuously trying to achieve.
Speech interfaces in the present term of the word is a definition that actually encompasses a huge number of disciplines and technologies. It may take in only the audio version or may be added with a more visual series. Most of the development that is happening in this area with the beginning from the Siri followed by its competitors like Cortana and Google Now quickly coming to the fray to the induction of the physical model of Alexa it is gearing up for the next revolution in the technology industry with more and more advancements coming in to factor for the human angle and to make the devices as humane as possible starting from creating a much more human voice for the devices to creating a personality for the same. Though almost all these devices stem from the fact to make the everyday workings of a human being much easier the normal everyday man barring a few still find them more of a liability with less privacy and even less efficiency in compared to their live peers. Thus, though the industry in this area is advancing at a rapid pace, there is still much to achieve for the same (Roger K Moore. (2016) )
Examples of speech interfaces range from the earlier laboratory developments in this area to the much further and much more advanced versions that we have reached recently. It now ranges to the very well known and world accepted Siri technologies of Apple to its more recent competitors that have joined the fray like those of Microsoft’s Cortana and the Google Now by Google. These were soon followed by the home-based devices brought in by Amazon and Google of Alexa and Google Home. All the above though are products of some of the very big-shot brands, but still, there are quite a few who might not be part of any brand but are still speech interfaces in their own rights like the online assistant in a museum which are slowly gaining traction now. Taking all these into consideration it can be easily pointed out that any sort of device or instrument that takes in any sort of speech based command as an input converts them into text based on the understanding that it could decipher and give out an output in text or sound based forms which would in the optimal sense be an appropriate answer to the query thus posed and also make the work or function of an individual more easier because of the opportunity provided to be able to complete tasks without really using hands are examples of a speech interfacing device (Roger K Moore. (2016) )
This is one of the areas that the automated speech interfacing devices are facing a lot of problems and also where the mere effectiveness as well the extent till which the following function is to be taken up is something that the industry still has to get the correct mix of and also something that will be the main crux of this review. This mainly starts with the makers getting obsessed with the creation of a completely personalized or human-like feeling while talking to the speech interfacing assistant. This not only includes the usage of a human-like voice while answering to any sort of query in the similar lines that is done by Siri but also to take It one step up by giving gestures as well as a personality that is unique to the machine. It has been taken so far as to have different personality biases based on the geographical location that they are serving, for example, the Japanese Siri is much more composed and formal with very little jokes cracked in comparison to its American counterpart. Though this is one of the areas where the companies are investing a huge chunk of their time and effort in but it is heavily debated whether giving so much importance to force a humane attitude into something that is most definitely not human the correct thing to do. Many researches by eminent researchers have been conducted on the same with a clear indication that when human find a machine that can reply or talk in a very much humane way the amount of expectation that builds up is often huge and when that cannot be fulfilled it generally results in a negative review for the machine thus failing the purposefully. Moreover, a highly polite machine trying to create a human-like feeling in its approaches and answers can be downright clingy. On the other side, it has been observed that on being confronted with a machine having a mechanical voice human being are much more efficient in their information sharing and also very direct and concise of the work that they want to be done through the machine in question. Taking all these into consideration that amount of humaneness that ought to be brought in these machines are a heavy topic of debate and consultation even now. (Ewa Luger. (2016).)
Though one of the most obvious forms of speech impairment hesitation is one such topic which has been looked into or researched far less than many other phenomena. The huge prevalence of ums and uhs are something that has become a part of our daily lexicon though very little effort or thought is put behind it. Though studies have been done on it considering the probable cause of such speech hesitations which ranges from the lack of knowledge of a subject to the availability of too many options as some of the main reasons that have been attributed to the hesitated speech it also has a much more psychological meaning beyond the normal terms that are described above. The prevalence of uh which is of a much smaller duration than that of um is generally the symbol of the fact that an important topic or sentence is coming up which generally results in a heightened sense of attention in the listeners. On the other hand, the prevalence of the much longer um generally creates a gap in the sentence and does not evoke any such type of reactionary state as was given in the earlier example. As the primary aims of the speech, interfaces is to make the communication with the humans as simple and human-like as possible and also to bring in the much-required humane factor into it thus it is very much important that they understand or are able to tackle such speech hesitation to become a much more well-rounded system in the future (Corley. (2018).)
What is the present scenario in the speech interface division, and how attuned is it
What is the level of humaneness that is expected in a speech interfacing device and how much is too much
Should the speech interface devices find out means to tackle in the innate human hesitations in speeches and if so then how
The hypothesis that we would like to prove would have to encompass both the practicality as well as the psychological portion of the situation and something that can truly connect to the state that the speech interfacing industry right now is in and can help it to improve therein
“A Speech interface machine would be much more successful if it brings in the salient human factors like the speech hesitation thus creating a much more human feel.”
Though it is still too early to really put the finger on the state as well as the future of the speech interfacing machines it can easily be deciphered that the makers should make up their minds whether they would want it to be much more comfortable and personalized or do they want it to be much more efficient. The choice that they will thus make and the steps that they will take in that direction will effectively shape the industry
Roger K Moore. (2016). ‘From Talking and Listening Robots to Intelligent Communication Machines’
Roger K Moore. (2011). ‘Appropriate Voices for Artefacts: Some Key Insights’
Joao Cabral. (2016). ‘The influence of Synthetic Voice for the Evaluation of Virtual Character.’
Benjamin Crowan. (2016). ‘Infrequent User Experience for Intelligent Personal Machines’
Ewa Luger. (2016). ‘The Gulf between User Expectations and Experience of Conversational Agents’
Corley. (2018). ‘Hesitation Disfluencies in Spontaneous Speech: The meaning of um.’
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