In this present day situation, nutrition can be considered as crucial part in health related issues. Inadequate nutrition for both children and new mother can cause malnutrition. In case of both developing and developed countries, malnutrition can be considered as a hidden problem in relation to the health care system. This essay has focused on importance of both child nutrition and maternal nutrition in relation to Australian context. Australia has been chosen as an example of developing country to analyse both government policies and programs to prevent negative impact of malnutrition. On the other hand, this essay has described the problems faced by Australia. A description regarding various impact of under nutrition has been presented in this essay to evaluate the factors which can affect maternal and child nutrition. Importance of these factors on the health development of both child and adults has been discussed in this essay.
Issues related to under nutrition have potential to impact negatively on the wellbeing of the country. It can be reported that near about 35% to 43% people of Australia can be considered as victim of this social issue (Unicef for every child, 2019). Malnutrition can be considered as a major public issue of Australia. A recent study on the health condition of Australian people has reported that prevalence regarding under nutrition throughout eight aged facilities from a range of 32% to 72% (Dietitians Associations of Australia, 2019). In Australia, this issue can influence quality of life of both children and adults. On the other hand, this issue has potential to lead poor medical outcomes which can also affect potential productivity.
It can be reported that near about half of children death under age 5 are attributable to malnutrition. As per the views of Flynn et al. (2017), difficulties in under nutrition among children below 5 years can encounter greater risks from common infections. Due to lack of nutrition among the children in Australia, the number of malnutritioned children has been increased to 49.48 million (Australian Government Department of Health, 2019). Interaction between infection and under nutrition has potential to create lethal cycle regarding worsening illness and it can impact negatively on nutritional status. Lack of nutritional well as poor quality of nutrition in first 100 days of a child can lead issues in the growth. On the other hand, maternal under nutrition can not only impact negatively on health condition of mother but also it can lead health issues for the children. Moreover, this social issue is associated with cognitive ability. In relation to productive potential, lack of nutrition among the children can reduce school as well as future work performance.
Though the problem related to lack of nutrition can be considered as prevalent in relation to adults, nutritional deficiency among children and maternal aspects can be considered as a serious problem. As per the survey conducted by Child Nutrition Survey of Australia, near about 5% children are affected from the issues related to malnutrition (Australian Government Department of Health, 20109). It is important for the community to focus on multi level modelling in order to estimate progress level of country level. According to United Nations Children’s Fund, among 23,969,000, 3.49 can be considered as mortality rate per 1000 births of children. This alarming situation needs urgent action and needs to develop initiatives of government. On the other hand, different policies and campaign to make the people aware can be considered as an effective initiative by the government.
Government of Australia has taken initiatives to deal with issues caused due to lack of nutrition among mothers and children less than 5 years. In order to reduce risks from the life of newborn babies and pregnant mothers, government has implemented health policies and provided facilities to recover the issues. In case of rural areas of Australia, government has set strategies to support healthy lifestyle of the native people. Government has conducted an awareness problem for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to counsel health related problems of them. Health Connect can be mentioned as a program conducted by the government of Australia which is scheduled to mitigate problems of target community by providing facilities to them related primary health care (Australian Government Department of Health, 2019). This policy is able to support effective strategies which can help the pregnant women who belong to remotest area.
According to the terms of this policy, it can help to give access to pregnant ladies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to achieve facilities regarding nutrition as well as medicines. For an example, National Perinatal Depression Initiative can be mentioned which has concerns on prevention and improvement both postnatal and antenatal depression. This strategy or initiative taken by the authority of the country has potential to support expectant mothers as well as the mothers who are experiencing postnatal depression (Australian Government Department of Health, 2019). In the entire time period of pregnancy, this policy can support the health condition of the women by checking routine problems. Both the terms as well as regulation of Food and Nutrition Policy of 1992 can support good nutrition to the mothers and the children. In order to improve health condition of all the Australians and to reduce burden of nutrition related deaths and health issues, this policy has been implemented by maintaining nutrition codes (Australian Government Department of Health, 2019). As per the provisions of Legislation Act 2003, authority has supported production of food using gene technology in relation to National Nutrition Policy.
Research as well collection of data regarding impact of malnutrition or under nutrition of health condition of both children and mothers can help to make out strategies to support expectant mothers. In relation to both maternal and infant health care system, these steps taken by the government has insisted to get better opportunity for them.
On the other hand, MAIF Agreement can be mentioned as another step taken by government of Australia. As per this agreement a self regulatory contract can ensure authentic codes of conduct between infant formula importers and manufacturers. International Code of Marketing regarding Breast Milk Substitutes provided by WHO can influence this agreement (World Health Organisation, 2019). Awareness program conducted by the authority of this country has potential to make the community people aware regarding importance of breast milk. This step gives an opportunity to the pregnant ladies to properly breastfeed their babies. As this program is a cost effective program, it can reach to weaker section of the society. Under department of Health of Australia, amendment of eligibility of Midwives guidelines can be considered as an effective step to the betterment and wellbeing of both maternal and child health along with this agreement of 2018 (Australian Government Department of Health, 2019).
Inadequate diet to both mother and children can provide opportunity for diseases to manifest within human beings. As per National Health and Medical Research Council, a diet without five components of nutrition can leave a child malnutritioned (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia, 2019). Along with these factors, it has been analysed that along with negative impact of deficiency of nutrition on mother and children, it may affect lifestyles of adults. Due to lack of nutrition in early stage of life of a child, brain development as well as physical growth the child can be hampered. These factors lead complications to future of the child in adulthood.
Anemia, the critical medical condition can be considered as a factor which is related to lack of proper diet. Deficiency of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 within food component can lead the problem of anemia within mothers and children. It can be reported that 3% of average 12 to 17 years Australians can be considered as susceptible to this disease (Australian Medical Association, 2019). Inadequate production of red blood cells due to lack of oxygen absorption can lead low level of haemoglobin in blood.
Diabetes type II can be considered a progressive pancreatic state of human beings which can affect lifestyles of both children and their mothers. As per the views of Katzmarzyk et al. (2015), lack of physical exercise and poor quality of diet can be considered as responsible factors which can affect child and maternal nutrition. Due to issues in cognitive functioning in relation to a health condition of a child, these factors can influence negatively on lifestyles of the people. As per the report of Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, diabetes among Australian children is on rise within this country (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019).
Deficiency of calcium and Vitamin D in food components of children can cause problems to develop a brittle bone which inhabits capability to participate in physical activities. Vitamin D can be considered as an important component in nutrition as it can help to allow body tissues in specific bones to be mineralized and nourished properly. Lack of calcium in diet of children can cause issues related to low bone density or osteoporosis. In case of infant, these factors can increase risk for permanent bone damage.
Apart from these medical perspectives, poverty and lack of focus to economic stability and inequality can be considered as responsible factors to maternal and children under nutrition. As per report of Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia, fund alignment of this country can lead issues related to poverty which can insist growth of negative impact of under nutrition in mothers and children.
Under nutrition within children health care system can cause serious implications on future generation of this country. Australian Government has focused on the process to take initiative by conducting programs. In order to improve health standards of Australians, this country has focused on mainly maternal health promotions. As per the views of Flynn et al. (2017), conducting awareness program in rural part of this country can help to make the people aware regarding effective component of the food. Moreover, these programs are able to support the women to know importance of breastfeeding to the children. It has been analysed that deficiency or lack of essential components in diet of a child can not only impact negatively on physical health condition of the child but also it can impact adulthood of the child. The Midwives services can ensure prenatal as well as postnatal care for all the Australians throughout the world. Moreover due to unequal distribution in funding has negatively impacted on National Prenatal Depression initiative taken by the government.
Unequal income condition of the Australians has supported issues related to health problems caused due to the under nutrition. The process of developing National Nutrition Policy can help to recover the issues related to maternal under nutrition. Apart from these, as per the views of Hobbs et al. (2015) problems related to budget cut down has potential to make barrier to health diet to both mothers and children of Australia. Due to high expense for cost to conduct awareness program and nutrition policies, government encounters barriers to take initiatives. Most importantly, in order to improve quality of activities to support maternal and children under nutrition, it is important to focus on equal distribution in funding.
It is important to take special care to the nutrition of a newborn child till first 1000 days. Along with these, maternal nutrition can be considered as important to provide care to both children and mothers. Deficiency in nutrition can cause stunted growth. Lack of vitamin A in children and mothers can help to support difficult situation related to deficiency of nutrition. Moreover, based on the views of Jones & Ejeta (2016), while a child can reach into adulthood lack of nutrition can affect entire lifestyle. On the other hand, lack of nutrition can affect stability of mental health of a new born baby. Based on these factors, it has been analysed that it is important to focus on nutritional requirements, foods with all five components.
It has also been identified that it may affect achievement of children in future days. Apart from these, maternal as well as children under nutrition can help a child to face difficulties in relation to productive potential. According to Hanson et al. (2015), along with childhood of a human being, deficiency of food can lead problems to adulthood of the person. Lack of potential to brain development can affect growth of a student. Negligence in nutrition is able to lead problem being an adult. On the other hand, initiatives taken by the government of Australia can support better lifestyle of the people. It is important to focus on proper nutritional requirements for both mothers and children from very early stage.
There is numerous reason of malnutrition. According to Wrottesley, Lamper & Pisa (2016) in context of a specific country, economy inequality can be identified as the main reason of malnutrition. However, there are several actions taken by the government as well as the nongovernmental organization to reduce the rate of malnutrition. One of the major actions is awareness programs. That means people should be aware regarding the malnutrition issue and awareness programs should be conducted in order to make people more sensitive regarding this issue. Influenced from the views of Christian et al. (2015), in order to prevent malnutrition government should take effective steps by taking consideration the current economic scenario along with the societal structure of the country. Furthermore, government would emphasis more on the child health program.
On the similar note government would take specific measurement to increase the mental health during the pregnancy period as the poor mental health can negatively affect the nutrition rate of the mother as well as for the child also. This measurement can be taken by implementing effective healthcare initiatives for the economically backward sections of the society. As per the views of Hobbs et al. (2015), malnutrition is remains as a less discussed fact of a country. Therefore, government must take extra initiative to look after this issue before it turns out be a serious matter in the society. This can only be happen by initiating workshops as well as organizing healthcare awareness programs and providing accessibility to the rural area. Along with that nongovernmental organizations should also take initiative in order to eradicate malnutrition from the society.
Based on the above mentioned discussion and statistical analysis of issues related to under nutrition to children and mothers of Australia, it has been evaluated that initiatives taken by government has potential to recover the problems. On the other hand, in such a developing country like Australia, care to both children and mothers can support this social problems. Through implications of plan and programs related to under nutrition to women and children, government can help to achieve target audience. Government of this country has supported importance of awareness program to the mothers. This essay has discussed importance of breastfeeding to mitigate issues related to poor health due to under nutrition. On the other hand, it has evaluated that equal budgetary allocation of funding can be able to help in reducing poverty which can help to decrease negative impact of maternal under nutrition and children under nutrition. It can be concluded that these measurements and the strategies taken by Australian government can help to bring positive influence on maternal and children under nutrition.
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