- Please read the Instructions for each essay carefully.
- Each essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for each essay!
- There are 7 Separate Essay to be written
- The general subject for these essays is Psychology
Please Title and label this essay as “Discussion 1.docx.”. This essay needs to be at least 300 + words. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay! The topic for this essay is: List and define the six steps of the scientific method.
To further expand your understanding of this method, please apply these 6 steps to a situation you could face regularly in your future career. For example, if you are a Respiratory Therapy student, think of how this method could be used when a patient presents with a breathing problem.
There are six steps in the approach of scientific study or branching disciplines, and psychology is no exception.
These six steps include observation, stating or defining a problem, proposing a hypothesis (or an educated guess) that can be tested, gathering evidence (data and results that can be collected through tests or experiments), publishing the results and finally, building a theory based on the gathered information from the tests performed.
It is important to begin with making observations, so that you can come up with ideas to help you identify a problem. This leads to the next step of defining a problem. You can identify and name a problem when you make an observation regarding something that causes you to ask a question like “why does this happen?” or “what causes this to occur?”
The next step is to propose a hypothesis. A hypothesis is “a tentative statement about, or explanation of, an event or relation-ship. In common terms, a hypothesis is a testable hunch or educated guess about behavior” (Coon, 2009, p. 20). An important thing to note when making a hypothesis is that it can be tested. From these tests, we should be able to gather results or evidence that either proves or disapproves the hypothesis, or provides for the reason to do further research. From this we publish the results to display and encourage others to do their own studies and test on the matter. And lastly, we can provide a theory based on the results and outcomes of the tests. “A theory acts a map of knowledge. Good theories summarize observations, explain them, and guide further research” (Coon, 2009, p.21).
Key things to remember:
“Hypothesis: the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables.
Operational definition: Defining a scientific concept bby stating the specific actions or precedures used to measure it. For example, ‘hunger’ might be defined as ‘the number of hours of food deprivation.’
Theory: A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations” (Coon, 2009, p. 21).
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2009). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior with concept maps and reviews (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Please Title and label this essay as “Discussion 2.docx.”. This essay needs to be at least 300 + words. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is:
Tom Hansen doesn’t like the way his life has turned out and says it’s because he was reared improperly. Hansen, 25, has filed suit against his mother and father, seeking $350,000 in damages because they reared him improperly and he will need psychiatric care the remainder of his life.
Answer the following questions:
- What would you consider evidence of “parental malpractice”?
- Should or could parents be held responsible for the way their children turn out?
- If placed in the position of the judge, would students hear the case?
Please Title and label this essay as “Discussion 3.docx.”. This essay needs to be at least 300 + words. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is: Face Recognition
Go to the following website and do the face recognition activities there:
(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Next, go to this website and do the face recognition activities there:
http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/06/are-you-a-super-recognizer.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Share your experiences and thoughts related to the activities. Were you surprised by what you saw and by what you didn’t see?
Please Title and label this essay as “Essay1.docx.”. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is: Scientific Method
- Go to Psychology Careers and Specialties (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
- Read the information on the different specialty areas within the field of psychology.
- Write 500 words (two (2) full pages) on the two specialties that interest you the most and why.
- Papers should be in APA format. A template and information on APA requirements under Course Media.
- The paper should have one inch margins and be double spaced.
- Use 12 point Times New Roman font.
- Write in the first person.
- Cite and reference the “Areas of Specialization” web page.
Please Title and label this essay as “Essay2.docx.”. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is: Stages of Development
- Read the Week 2 Interactive Assignment Template I have included.
- Read the information on the Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
- Answer the questions in the assignment template using “Essay 5 Example.pdf” as a guide. Provide only the level of personal information you are comfortable with; the questions can be answered without an inappropriate amount of personal information. All information is confidential and is read only by the instructor.
- Submit assignment as a file attachment. Name the file using your last name and the name of the assignment. For example, jones_wk1_interactive.
Please Title and label this essay as “Essay3.docx.”. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is: Perception
Many aspects of psychology converge in the work place. Behavioral conditioning and modification are two of the most common.
Write a 600-700 word paper (two full pages) in which you provide an example of either operant conditioning or behavior modification principles or techniques you experienced, implemented, or observed in a past or current work place.
- Papers should be in APA format. A template and information on APA requirements is contained under Course Media.
- The paper should have one inch margins and be double spaced.
- Use 12 point Times New Roman font.
- Write in the first person.
Please Title and label this essay as “FinalEssay.docx.”. This essay needs to individually have APA citations in the body of the Essay with APA references listed below the Essay. Please include a title page and a reference page for this essay!
The topic for this essay is: Perception
The principles of operant conditioning can be adapted to manage one’s own behavior. These concepts can help one increase desired behaviors and/or decrease unwanted behaviors.
Project Instructions – Final Submission = 800-1,000 words (2 1/2 -3 pages of written work) (body) – excluding title and reference pages
- Read the Psychology in Action segment titled “Behavioral Self-Management – A Rewarding Project” on pages 247 and 248 found in the Microsoft Word Document “Final Essay Reading.docx” that I have included.
- Develop a personal behavioral self-management plan. The following stages should help:
- Choose a target behavior: Identify the activity you want to change.
- Establish a baseline: Determine how much time you currently spend performing the target activity or count the number of desired or undesired responses you make each day. Hint: Baseline data should be collected and recorded during week one of the course – it will help you tremendously (no need to turn this part in)
- Establish Goals: Remember the principle of shaping and set realistic goals for gradual improvement on each successive week. Also, set daily goals that add up to the weekly goals.
- Choose reinforcers: Choose a reward you will allow yourself if you meet your daily goal. Choose a reward you will allow yourself if you meet your weekly goal.
- Record your progress: keep accurate records of the amount of time spent each day on the desired activity or the number of times you make the desired response. Progress data should be collected and recorded during weeks two and three of the course (no need to turn this part in)
- Reward successes: If you meet your daily goal, collect your reward. If you fall short, be honest with yourself and skip the reward. Do the same for the weekly goal.
- Adjust your plan as you learn more about your behavior. After reviewing your progress data during week two, adjust your plan if necessary and continue collecting progress data during week three of the course using the revised plan.
- If your plan is to decrease a “bad” habit indicate which of the four strategies you are using to assist you: 1) alternate responses, extinction, response chains, or cues and antecedents.
- Write three (3) pages answering the questions below. – This is the submission.
- What target behavior did you try to modify? Why did you select this behavior?
- How and why did you chose the daily and weekly goals?
- How and why did you choose the daily and weekly reinforcers? What is it about these activities or rewards that you find reinforcing?
- Did your self-management plan work? Did you change the target behavior? If you did, why do you think your plan was successful? If you did not, why do you think your plan was not successful?
- How might you modify your plan to make it successful or more successful?
- What is your overall reaction to this project? Will you use these concepts in the future? Why or why not?
- Papers should be in APA format. A Template and information on APA requirements can be found under Course Media.
- The paper should have one inch margins and be double spaced.
- Use 12 point Times New Roman font.
- Write in the first person.
- Utilize, cite and reference the textbook and two (2) other research sources in your paper.
Essay 1: Discussion 1
(Six steps of the scientific method)
The scientific methods include systematic approach towards the presentation of any study. It is important for an individual to undergo through different steps of scientific studies. The effective result of the studies is only possible by the efficient use of all the six steps.
The step includes proper observation of the system. It is vital for the individual to understand the scene before taking any decision. The proper observation of the situation helps the person to understand the problem better. The second step consists of the understanding of the issue. The proper understanding of the issue faced in a particular situation is vital to take future decision for solving it. The third stage consists of the making of the hypotheses. The hypotheses help the person to decide where to work on the issue or not. As opined by Coon, & Mitterer (2012), the hypothesis plays a very vital role in the decision making the process of an individual. The fourth stage consists of the gathering of relevant results. The correct evidence is needed for the effective execution of the solution to the problem. The fifth sage is the publishing of the result. The result of being effective in a particular situation needs to share with other people in order to spread awareness among others. The final station includes the building of the theories with the help of the results.
In the case where the patient is suffering from a breathing problem, it is important too, first of all, observe the person and try to identify their problem. The proper hypothesis making and finding evidence about their medical history is important before treating them. As stated by George (2019), the proper understanding of the problem of the person will be helpful in treating the person in an efficient manner. The steps taken in the process of handling the person in the situation of breathing problem needs to be quick. The decision-making process needs to be effective as the life of the person is in trouble.
The use of the six steps is effective in the execution of the scientific studies in an organized manner. The person using these methods is able to reach their desired goals more effectively and systematically.
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2012). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behaviour with concept maps and reviews. Cengage Learning. Retrieved on: 12.1.19 Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=EYwjCQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR4&dq=Coon,+D.+%26Mitterer,+J.O.+(2009).+Introduction+to+psychology:+Gateways+to+mind+and+behavior+with+concept+maps+and+reviews+(12th+ed.).+Belmont,+CA:+Cengage+Learning.&ots=HJS8yu_R8L&sig=_3qCVoktFAnbSZzSgZkXADlTTjI
George, A. L. (2019). Case studies and theory development: The method of structured, focused comparison. In Alexander L. George: A Pioneer in Political and Social Sciences (pp. 191-214). Springer, Cham. Retrieved on: 12.1.19 Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-90772-7_10
Essay 2: Discussion 2
(A Case study of Tom Hansen)
The malpractice of the parenting is a result of the reflectance towards the child from the very early stage. The life of the people has become so busy nowadays that it becomes very difficult for people to take proper care of their children’s. The proper management of the work and children’s are very difficult for the parents these days. The child with both the parents working faces serious neglect and suffered psychologically. The use of the proper parenting practice is helpful for the better nourishment of the child in their growing up stages.
The strict approach of the parents towards their children affects them psychologically. The parents believe that the punishment they are given to their children will improve them to be a good person but that is not the case. As opined by Martinez-Torteya et al. (2018), the children’s with strict parents are mostly suffering from psychological disorder. They become arrogant and are unable to concentrate properly. The physiology of the child is not stable and needs proper guidance. The effective parenting is helpful in upbringing the child into a good human being.
A case study was identified where Tom Hansen mentioned that he was not parented properly. Being 25 years of age he was against his mother and father for not parenting them correctly. He mentioned that he will have to visit the psychiatric on the daily basis and demands an amount of $350,000 for the damage. The parenting of the child is very important for the individual. As it is the parents that teach their child what is good or bad but when they grow up all the fate is in their hand. The parents can teach their children but the child also needs to grab the manner from their surroundings. As stated by Jain (2018), the children’s are also equally responsible for the process of their growing up. Blaming the parents for their mal-parenting is not a solution.
This case is an interesting case and shall be appreciated by the students. This case study is correctly aligned with the topic and is beneficial in highlighting the different issues related to the malpractice in parenting.
Jain, R. (2018). Effect of Psychological Wellbeing on Violent Behavior among Adolescents In Reference to Parenting Style. European Journal of Social Sciences, 1(3), 103-110 Retrieved on 12.1.19 Retrieved from: http://journals.euser.org/index.php/ejss/article/view/4006/3883
Martinez-Torteya, C., Katsonga-Phiri, T., Rosenblum, K. L., Hamilton, L., & Muzik, M. (2018). Postpartum depression and resilience predict parenting sense of competence in women with childhood maltreatment history. Archives of women’s mental health, Retrieved on 12.1.19 Retrieved from: http://journals.euser.org/index.php/ejss/article/view/4006/3883
Essay 3: Discussion 3
The recognition of the face is the part of the memory of the person. The image of the person they meet is captured in the memory of the person and they are able to recall it when needs. The ability to recall the visual of the person exists on a particular spectrum. The Prosopagnosia was considered as the disorder in the previous times but with the change in the time, it is just considered as the low visual functioning.
The ability of an individual to get a proper idea about the ability of their brain to recognize the face of a person can be easily tested with the help of Face Recognition. The ability of the person to recognize the face is responsible for the lobe which is present in the brain. The features of the brain are recognized with the help of some temporal lobe in the brain. The person suffering from the loss of the temporal lobe in their brain suffers from the disorder of recognizing the pace properly (Thecut.com, 2019).
It is surprising to see that the person lacks the ability to recognize the face of the person after meeting them once. The change in the attire of the individual like that of changing their hairstyle, changing the type of clothes they wear or accessories they use, make them look different and people find it difficult to recognize them properly. The similar face recognition is also an exciting criterion in which the individuals find similarity in the face of two or more individuals (Washington.edu, 2019).
The face recognition of the face of an individual after the first meeting is difficult. The brain is unable to store the correct information regarding the facial details. The brain needs a number of meetings to store every detail related to the face of the person and recall them later. The use of the test related to the ability of the recognition of the face of an individual is helpful understanding the ability of the brain in identifying the face of an individual and recalling it which thinking about the person.
Thecut.com (2019), As You Any Good at Recognizing Familiar Faces? Here, Test yourself Retrieved on: 12.1.19. Retrieved from https://www.thecut.com/2016/06/are-you-a-super-recognizer.html
Washington.edu (2019), Face Recognition Retrieved on: 12.1.19 Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/faces.html
I am interested in the two areas of psychology which is social psychology and forensic psychology. The investing of the crime with the help of the scientific methods is very interesting to me. The heartbeat of the person is counted while investigating the truth. The lie detector machine is used to check whether the person is telling the truth or not. Social psychology, on the other hand, is how one person get influenced by the norms of society.
The forensic psychology is a very important method of collecting crime evidence. The case where there is no evidence found the scientific methods plays a very vital; role. As stated by Trojan & Salfati (2016), the conclusion drawn by the use of Forensic psychology is not always correct. The result cannot be trusted fully and needs better evidence.
The CSI tries to identify the crime area properly and then investigate the suspects. The officers study the body language of the suspected people and try to read their persons. As mentioned by Curci et al. (2017), the evidence and the entire scenario are studies, again and again, to reach a particular conclusion and identify the suspect.
I believe that the study of social psychology is similar to that of general psychology. The social psychology focuses on a particular person whereas the sociology deals with the group of individuals. As opined by Brewster et al. (2016), the introduction of the scientific methods is helpful in the assimilation of the individual in a particular study and understands the norms of the society better.
A very interesting case that will clearly highlight the social Psychology was when a black boy was killing being a white politician. It is clearly identified by the by the social psychological point of view that the white politician being powerful considered his blood to be pure as well as loyal and disliked the appearance of the black boy and so killed him. The obvious question arises that he might have killed the boy on the basis of race.
The use of the scientific method is very important for the effective execution of the result regarding the crime. As stated by Neal et al. (2018), the use of these methods are not full proof but is able to provide a rough idea about the suspect. The detailed study of the crime is and the history of the suspected people is helpful in understanding the case better. As mentioned by Miller (2016), the study of the history of the individuals engaged with the person is helpful in understanding the motive of the person.
I think the forensic psychologist shall be an interesting career for me. My interest in this field shall be a plus point for me in selecting this topic. Knowing the importance of the scientific method in this, I would like to take up this profession as my career and help the investigation team in reaching the suspect. My love for understanding the mind of an individual shall be beneficial for me. The career exits me and I believe that I can undertake the profession properly.
Brewster, J., Stoloff, M. L., Corey, D. M., Greene, L. W., Gupton, H. M., & Roland, J. E. (2016). Education and training guidelines for the speciality of police and public safety psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10(3), 171. Retrieved on: 12.1.19. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2016-37299-007.html
Trojan, C., & Salfati, G. (2016). The criminal history of homicide offenders: a multi-dimensional analysis of criminal specialization. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 6(1), 28-41. Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/JCP-09-2015-0027
Curci, A., Cabras, C., Lanciano, T., Soleti, E., & Raccis, C. (2017). What is over and above psychopathy? The role of ability emotional intelligence in predicting criminal behaviour. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 24(1), 139-151. Retrieved on: 12.1.19. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13218719.2016.1196642
Neal, T. M., Hight, M., Howatt, B. C., & Hamza, C. (2018). The cognitive and social psychological bases of bias in forensic mental health judgments. In Advances in Psychology and Law(pp. 151-175). Berlin: Springer, Cham. Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-75859-6_5
Miller, R. L. (2016). The early history of social psychology. Psychological Specialties in Historical Context, 83. Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from http://teachpsych.org/resources/Documents/ebooks/psychological-specialties-in-historical-context-2016.pdf#page=85
Essay 2: Stages of Development
1. Think of an important event in your childhood. What does this event tell you about yourself in terms of Erikson’s stages? (100 words)
When I think of my childhood closing my eyes all I remember that I was a happy child and loves to talk to strangers. When my parents got divorced, I was staying with my mother and suffered lots of problems. My mother worked to sustain us and was away from the house most of the times. She was unable to attain my school annual functions and I used to feel depressed on selling the patients of other children’s supporting them. My outlook towards the world changed with the incident and I was facing difficulties in trusting other individuals during childhood.
2. Circle what you believe was your resolution at each of the psychosocial stages below and then give a reason for your choice: (50 words)
0 – 1
Trust vs. Mistrust
I was a baby with a happy mood. I loved to play with soft toys and enjoyed splashing water while bathing.
1 – 3
Self-reliance vs. Self-doubt
I loved to listen to the stories that my mother told me at night. I enjoyed going to the park with my father in the evenings on Sundays. I loved to craw in my room and pick up things I found on my ways.
3 – 6
Initiative vs. Guilt
I remember my parent used to fight a lot and the violence in my house affected by mentally. My parents got divorced when I was 5. I lived with my mother after that.
6 – 12
Industry vs. Inferiority
I was heartbroken when my father got married to some other lady. I developed the skill of cricket in me during this phase. I used to engage myself in different activities to make myself busy. This was a huge solution to my craving for parental love.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
This time period was very confusing for me. I was confused about which the change in my body image. I loved to spend time with my friends and developed the habit of smoking.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
I was not close to my mom during this time and my close friends helped by to overcome my stage of depression and live a happy life.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
I was married and was blessed with two children’s. I made sure that they get enough love and care from me.
Integrity vs. Despair
I am engaged in lots of works related to charity. I am happy to see my children are growing in the correct manner.
3. What new insight do you have into your own development? (100 words)
I am a much better person now. I was completely disturbed due to my unstable childhood and divorce of my parents. I was unable to believe anyone. The company of good friends and well-wishers has enabled me to become a better person. I was able to live a happy life because of my wife. The organized behaviour of her made me a better individual and I was able to understand the reality of the cruel world. Trusting evil people was the worst decision I have ever made. I was able to give a happy life to my children due to my past experiences.
What is most important to you in your life right now? What do you value? (100 words)
My children are the most important thing to me right now. I want them to grow up to be a better individual. I keep telling them stories about life experiences and help them to understand the difference between the motives of the people. I try to keep proper love and affection to my children and make sure that they don’t feel neglected. I am friendly to my children’s and always encourage them to tell the truth.
If you are in Erikson’s “Identity vs. Role Confusion” stage:
How are you doing with this struggle? If you have passed that stage, what stage are you in, and how are you doing? Explain. (100 words)
My reliance on the individuals whom I consider to my friend was my mistake. I trusted my friends blindly who were with me for a motive. They indulge me in immoral activities and removed me from my path. I started hating my parents and was depressed for being lonely. I loved spending times with my friend and was unable to distinguish between true and fake friends.
What are your fondest future dreams (could be regarding work, love, friendship, community, religion, children, marriage, personal achievement, wealth, material possessions, etc.). In other words, how do you envision your future life? (100 words)
I and my wife are planning for retirement and marriage of my children. We are planning for a vacation where we can spend some quality time and relax for a while. I am planning to expand my business after retirement. I am planning to save resource for the better future of my children so that they can live life in comfort.
How can you be a generative adult? What current behaviors if continued through your adult years might lead you to stagnation? (50 words)
Generative qualities you have now
Stagnant qualities you have now
I am very friendly with my children and encourage them to take up challenges in life. I make sure that they don’t indulge in the wrong company and are able to live their lives in a proper manner (Malone et al. 2016).
I trust people easily and feel hurt when they don’t treat me right. I am very possessive about my children but make sure that I do not enter their personal space and hamper their privacy.
Malone, J. C., Liu, S. R., Vaillant, G. E., Rentz, D. M., & Waldinger, R. J. (2016). Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health. Developmental psychology, 52(3), 496. Retrieved on: 12.1.19 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398200/
Essay 6: Perception
The modification in the behavior principles plays a major role in my life to understand various aspects regarding the psychology of a human being. As opined by Bailey et al. (2016) that there are various principles which helps me a lot to change my behavioral aspect in many prospects of my life. As stated by Clarke (2017) that behavioral aspect is one of the most important tools to understand the psychology of a person to reach the behavioral goals in one’s life. I have followed various principles to bring a modification to my behavioral attitude which is going to be discussed in this module.
I have followed successive approximation principle to change my mannerism concept which also reflects a positive impact to my behavioral attitude. Kwasnicka et al. (2016) have commented that successive approximation principle makes me behave by maintaining proper manners and etiquettes which add value to my image and provides a positive impact in my attitudinal change.
Continuous reinforcement principle is been followed by me to change my behavior regarding my career and increase my attention towards my study. As opined by MacLeod et al. (2015) that the implementation of continuous reinforcement principle has helped me to achieve many rewards after each correct academic performance.
I have also implemented a negative reinforcement principle in order to achieve better performance regarding my academic record. As opined by Martin et al. (2015) that negative reinforcement principle helps to increase the behavioral performance in a particular way by avoiding all adverse situation and behaving in the right way with the others.
Another one principle which I have followed is the modeling principle. This modeling principle helps to modify my behavior by following a particular person in my life whom I considered as my role model. As opined by Walker et al. (2015) that modeling principle model encourages individuals to become just like my role model by adopting various attitudes and behaviors of that person. This shed a positive impact to my behavioral background which helps me to increase my performance in my academics as well as in my behavioral aspect.
I have also examined and implemented the principles of cueing model to analyze the result in my behavioral aspect. The principles related to cueing model, this helps me to act specifically respective of time. This helps me to gain a queue for the correct and efficient performance. This model helps me and revert me from doing inappropriate actions in my life.
Discrimination principle is also implemented by me to analyze the effect of discrimination in my behavioral attitude. As opined by Martin et al. (2015) that discrimination model is applied to analyze the bad effects of discrimination among the individuals. By applying this model I have came to understand that if the bad effects of discrimination are not seen then there is no psychological effect in a particular human mind. Kwasnicka et al. (2016) have commented that the analysis of this model is beneficial to me as it teaches me the adverse effects of discrimination in the human mind and nowadays discrimination is one of the most important issues that most of the person is facing in day to day life.
Substitution principle is also very much beneficial for me to establish good behavior with my fellow mates in a better way. Satiation principle helps me to bring me out from the depressed condition which I was facing before few days and helps me to behave in a proper way. Extinction principle also helps me to behave properly and helps me to bring me out of the inconsistency which I was facing regarding my academics and career development.
Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2016). behavior modification. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved on: 23.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315206622
Clarke, D. D. (2017). A structural model of behavior. Elsevier. Retrieved on: 20.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1968.tb02226
Kwasnicka, D., Dombrowski, S. U., White, M., & Sniehotta, F. (2016). A systematic review of behavior theories. Health psychology review, 10(3), 277-296. Retrieved on: 10.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978040700007050029
MacLeod, C., & Clarke, P. J. (2015). Modification approach to behavior modification. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(1), 58-78. Retrieved on: 02.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978040700007050029
Martin, G., & Pear, J. J. (2015). Behavior modification. Psychology Press. Retrieved on: 18.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315206622
Walker, S. (2017). Learning theory and behavior modification. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved on: 15.01.2019. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978040700007050029
FINAL ESSAY: PERCEPTION
I tried to improve my communication skills. Communication is very important in developing self-confidence. Effective communication makes the person confident enough to face the world with confidence. It is very important to maintain a proper position in today’s world. Communication is very important in establishing a proper place in the crowd. The person with good and efficient communication skills is able to make friends with people easily. The level of confusion also decreases with the help of the effective practice of communication skills. The conveying of information can be effective in reducing the level of misconception and helps the individual to build a good bond among their peers. As opined by Ryan, Kuusinen & Bedoya-Skoog (2015), the use good communication skill reduces the fear of the person and person is able to face the challenges of the world efficiently. I want to develop this skill in me to enhance my communication skills and converting power. I want to get rid of the fear of speaking in public and execute myself in a better manner.
I chose to work on my communication skills on daily basis. I selected a topic each day and use to speak in front of the mirror. I used to fumble a lot in the initial days and kept repeating the same. I used to state communication with random people to reduce my fear of interacting with strangers. I learned different new languages and tried to improve my communication skills. I, with the help of the new languages, was able to communicate with a large number of people. I used to debate with my friends on different topics to enhance my communication techniques. I developed the skill of reading books on different topics that helped me to identify and come across new words. I learned new words and tried to use them in my regular conversation. These practices helped me to develop the skill regarding my communication. I took help of my friends and asked them to correct me whenever I went wrong. My friends were very supportive and guided me for the best. I was even mocked by people for not being able to communicate properly. I was discouraged by the activities I practiced but I prefer not giving much importance to the criticism and concentrated on my development activities. The regular practice of effective communication fetched me success. I was confident enough to execute improved communication skills. I was able to present myself in a better manner in front of the others (Kincaid et al. 2016).
The daily practice of communication skills helped me to develop my skills better. I was able to identify my problems and execute my strengths properly. The development in communication skill is possible only with the help of regular practice. I adapted different communication skills and the regular practice of the same made me confident enough to speak out my feeling in front of the public without fear or hesitation. The selection of the daily reinforce was very important for me as I needed to develop my skill faster. As mentioned by Powell & Powell (2015), the development of proper communication is possible only with effective and regular practice.
I get a target for all my approaches and was able to reach my selected approach on time. The learning of new languages and words were little time consuming but I was able to manage them with the other targets. The development of my habit of indulging in debates with my friends was very effective and fetched results.
I would like to indulge myself in more communication activities and participate in communication programs and public debate. I would like to increase my knowledge in other languages as well to execute effective communication with other people. As stated by Gahagan (2015), the participation in the different programs and function like that of debate shall be effective in increasing the communication skill in an individual and is effective in improving their confidence level. The effective execution of the communication skill is important in the establishing prestigious position in the crow. As opined by Hargie (2016), the person with good communication practice is able to make a distinct identity for them self. The daily practice to enhance my skill was helpful in enhancing my skill (Dicke, Schmeck & Leutner, 2015).
The use of the systematic approach and planned execution of the set objectives towards the development of the communication skills of the individuals is essential. I believe that it is important that the person needs to, first of all, understand the character that they need to develop and work to improve it with the help of a planned approach. As stated by Jackson (2015), the systematic and planned approaches help an individual to reach to their desired within the fix time interval. My plans to reach my development activity were effective with the help of the efficient execution of the selected approaches. I would like to participate in the public debates for the effective enhancement of my communication activities.
Dicke, T., Elling, J., Schmeck, A., & Leutner, D. (2015). Reducing reality shock: The effects of classroom management skills training on beginning teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 48, 1-12. Retrieved on: 12.1.19 Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X15000141
Gahagan, J. (2015). Social interaction and its management. Psychology Press. Retrieved on: 12.1.19, Retrieved from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781317562191
Hargie, O. (2016). Skilled interpersonal communication: Research, theory and practice. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved on: 12.1.19. Retrieved from https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781317584568
Jackson, D. (2015). Employability skill development in work-integrated learning: Barriers and best practice. Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 350-367. Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from:http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1666&context=ecuworks2013
Kincaid, D., Dunlap, G., Kern, L., Lane, K. L., Bambara, L. M., Brown, F., … & Knoster, T. P. (2016). Positive behaviour support: A proposal for updating and refining the definition. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 69-73.Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1098300715604826
Powell, R. G., & Powell, D. L. (2015). Classroom communication and diversity: Enhancing instructional practice.Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781317484271
Ryan, A. M., Kuusinen, C. M., & Bedoya-Skoog, A. (2015). Managing peer relations: A dimension of teacher self-efficacy that varies between elementary and middle school teachers and is associated with observed classroom quality. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 147-156.Retrieved on 12.1.19. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361476X1500003X
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